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Picturing Santa Claus: ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas

Picturing Santa Claus: 'Twas the Night Before Christmas

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas, or A Visit from St. Nicholas, by Clement Clarke Moore is my favorite Christmas poem. I love reading the book in all the various editions and listening to the recording of the poem read or sung out loud during the weeks before Christmas. Written in 1823, ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas is definitely a Christmas classic. However, many modern readers do not know that the Santa Claus described in the poem is vastly different from our contemporary imagining of the mythical figure.

Written in 1823, ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas describes St. Nicholas somewhat differently from the Coca Cola or Tim Allen version of Santa Claus:

He was dressed all in fur, from his head to his foot,
And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot.
A bundle of Toys he had flung on his back,
And he looked like a peddler, just opening his pack.

His eyes-how they twinkled! his dimples how merry!
His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry!
His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
And the beard of his chin was as white as the snow.

The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
And the smoke it encircled his head like a wreath.
He had a broad face and a little round belly,
That shook when he laughed, like a bowlful of jelly!

He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf,
And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself!

St. Nicholas wears not a bright red suit with snow white trim but rather more working class garb similar to a peddler that is covered in ashes and soot from sliding down dirty chimneys. He is still jolly and chubby with a white beard, but he is smaller and more elf-like than the more imposing modern version of Santa Claus. Although many of the characteristics ascribed to our Santa Claus come from ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas, a few key features have evolved over the years.

While reading various versions of ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas in anticipation of the holidays, my daughter and I paid special attention to the imaginings of Santa in each book. Here are some of our favorite versions of the poem and my thoughts on each St. Nicholas.

Illustrated by Jessie Willcox Smith (1912)

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (1912) with illustrations by Jessie Willcox Smith features the classic drawings from the illustrator famous for her work in Ladies Home Journal and other magazines as well as a number of children’s books. The Jessie Willcox Smith edition of the poem is often considered the classic version. The illustrations of St. Nicholas very closely follow the description in the poem. He is wearing a dark fur suit covered in gray soot. He is short and squat and much more elf-like than modern incarnations. Most notably, the St. Nicholas in the Jessie Willcox Smith edition completely lacks the bright red suit of modern Santas.

'Twas the Night Before Christmas (1912) 1 'Twas the Night Before Christmas (1912) 2

Illustrated by Robert Ingpen (2010)

The Night Before Christmas (2010) with illustrations by Robert Ingpen features a modern interpretation of the classic holiday poem that still manages to remain true to the description in the text. St. Nicholas dons a red suit with white fur trim. However, the white is visibly dirty, reflecting the description of ashes and soot. This St. Nicholas is shorter and elf-like, especially in his face, which is wrinkled and slightly smushed while still possessing cheeks like roses and a nose like a cherry.

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Illustrated by Gennady Spirin (2006)

The Night Before Christmas (2006) with illustrations by Gennady Spirin offers a very modern version of St. Nicholas that more closely resembles Santa Claus. Much taller and heftier than the elf-like man in other retellings, this St. Nick wears a bright red suit. True to the text of the poem, however, his suit is covered in gray chimney dust. However, he is much more man (kind of like a jolly old grandfather) than an elf-like peddler.

The Night Before Christmas (2006) 1 The Night Before Christmas (2006) 2

Illustrated by Arthur Rackham (1976)

The Night Before Christmas (1976) with illustrations by Arthur Rackham features the work of another famous illustrator. Within all his work, Rackham strove to remain true to the text, and The Night Before Christmas reflects this steadfastness to an author’s meeting. St. Nicholas is an elf-like man in a long red fur coat. Although he is not covered in ashes and soot, his face smiles with a slight mischievousness.

The Night Before Christmas (1976) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1976) 2

Illustrated by Anita Lobel (1984)

The Night Before Christmas (1984) with illustrations by Anita Lobel also features another extremely contemporary incarnation of Santa Claus. Dressed in a red suit with snow white trim, this St. Nicholas lacks the ashes and soot of the original text. He is, however, slightly elf-like in his facial features and expressions.

The Night Before Christmas (1984) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1984) 2

Illustrated by James Marshall (1985)

The Night Before Christmas (1985) with illustrations by James Marshall features a rather comical version of Santa Claus wearing starred cowboy boots. However, true to the original text, this St. Nicholas descends the chimney and becomes covered in ashes and soot. His facial features also accurately reflect the original poem.

The Night Before Christmas (1985) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1985) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1989)

The Night Before Christmas (1989) with illustrations by Cheryl Harness pictures St. Nicholas pretty closely the text of the original poem. He wears a red suit with white trim that I visibly dirtied with ashes and soot from sliding down chimneys. He is plump and somewhat shorter than more our modern Santa Claus. His eyes, however, fail to twinkle, and the dimples in his cheeks are not nearly as merry as some versions of St. Nicholas. The green mittens her wears in many of the pictures are also much more modern in style.

The Night Before Christmas (1989) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1989) 2

The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (2008)

The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (2008) with illustrations by Mike Terrell features a very modern imagining of Santa Claus. This St. Nicholas is very jolly with a round belly that appears to shake like a bowlful of jelly. His bright blue eyes twinkle merrily. However, he is much taller than the original elf-like man described in the original poem. His red and white fur suit is also free from the ashes and soot that would make him look more like a peddler than a formidable mythical holiday character.

The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (2008) 1 The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (2008) 2

The Night Before Christmas: A Michael Hague Pop-up Book (1981)

The Night Before Christmas: A Michael Hague Pop-up Book (1981) with illustrations by Michael Hague offers a fairly modern Santa Claus that still remains pretty true to the description of St. Nick in the original poem. Dress in a red fur suit with white trim, St. Nicholas is extremely elf-like, especially in his face. His blue eyes twinkle, and his dimples shine with merriness. The biggest deviance from the poem is that he lacks any dirtiness from ashes and soot.

The Night Before Christmas: A Michael Hague Pop-up Book (1981) 1 The Night Before Christmas: A Michael Hague Pop-up Book (1981) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1980)

The Night Before Christmas (1980) with illustrations by Tomie dePaola features artwork from the prolific children’s illustrator. The St. Nicholas in this edition of the poem is rather stylized, which is typical of dePaola’s work. Aside from the stylization, St. Nick very closely resembles the description in the original poem. He is short and round with an elf-ish face. Immediately after descending the chimney into the house, he dusts the visible ashes and soot off his red and white fur suit. His face could project a bit more merriness, but overall this St. Nicholas incarnates the original text while still embracing the modern notion of Santa Claus.

The Night Before Christmas (1980) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1980) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1998)

The Night Before Christmas (1998) with illustrations by Jan Brett imagines St. Nicholas with a more Germanic or Scandinavian appearance than modern American notions of Santa Claus. This St. Nicholas dresses in a long red coat with green and gold ornamentation with a matching red shit and gold pants. True to the poem, he is covered in ashes and soot. Even his long white beard appears dirtied from sliding down the chimney. His blue eyes twinkle, which adds to the merriness on his smiling face. Although he appears fairly tall, he still comes across as rather elf-like. Therefore, although dissimilar from modern incarnations of Santa Claus, this St. Nicholas very closely resembles the original St. Nicholas described in the poem.

The Night Before Christmas (1998) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1998) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1984)

The Night Before Christmas (1984) from Ideals Children’s Books features Currier and Ives style Americana illustrations. The St. Nicholas in this version is very jolly with a twinkle in his eye and dimples on his cheeks. However, he has lost is elfishness, no longer resembling a peddler, instead reflecting an entirely contemporary notion of Santa Claus. He is the Coca Cola Santa dress in a red suit with snow white trim. He is fairly tall and robust. Although definitely inspired by the original poem, this St. Nicholas is more Santa Claus than the St. Nicholas of the Romantic Era.

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The Night Before Christmas (1997)

The Night Before Christmas (1997) with illustrations by Ruth Sanderson features a wizened St. Nicholas who is a perfect mix of classic and contemporary. His face is very wrinkled, definitely closer to little old peddler than the more formidable modern Santa Claus. His suit is red with white trim that is grayish, presumably from ashes and soot. His eyes, although not very bright, still twinkle with merriment. This St. Nicholas is neither completely old-fashioned nor entirely modernized. He is a blend of the classic St. Nick described in the original poem and the modern incarnation of the Coca Cola Santa Claus.

The Night Before Christmas (1997) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1997) 2

The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (1999)

The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (1999) with illustrations by Max Grover goes one step further in illustrating St. Nicholas with an identification chart for recognizing Santa. The drawings illustrated each detail from the original poem, from the fur to the ashes and soot and from the twinkly eyes to a nose like a cherry. This St. Nicholas is pretty darn close to the original text. He still maintains a modern flair while remaining true to the description in the poem.

The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (1999) 1 The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (1999) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1994)

The Night Before Christmas (1994) with illustrations by Julie Downing offers a fairly modern imagining of Santa Claus that still maintains many of the details from the original poem. This St. Nicholas is a little too tall for the elf-like man portrayed originally. However, his fur suit becomes covered in ashes and soot after he plummets down the chimney. His face also accurately reflects the description in the poem twinkling blue eyes, a cherry red nose, and merry dimples.

The Night Before Christmas (1994a) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1994a) 2

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (1994)

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (1994) with illustrations by Mike Artell offers a more comic book incarnation of Santa Claus. However, despite the more modern illustration style, St. Nicholas remains true to the original poem. His fur suit is visibly dirtied with ashes and soot from sliding down chimneys. He is merry and jolly with twinkling eyes and a cherry red nose. He is also short and rather elf-like in appearance, a perfect mix of classic St. Nicholas and modern Santa Claus.

The Night Before Christmas (1994b) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1994b) 2

The Night Before Christmas (2002)

The Night Before Christmas (2002) with illustrations by Mary Engelbreit features the unique illustration style of the prolific graphic artist and children’s illustrator. Wearing a red argyle jacket with white fur trim and a red polka dot hat, this St. Nicholas possesses a modern flair. His facial features still reflect the original text with twinkling blue eyes and dimpled cheeks. He is also short and plump with a jolly, elf-like look and demeanor. However, his clothing never appears at all tarnished with ashes and soot. Although based on the original St. Nicholas, he is more modern Santa Claus than classic peddler.

The Night Before Christmas (2002) 1 The Night Before Christmas (2002) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1995)

The Night Before Christmas (1995) with illustrations by Ted Rand features a St. Nicholas who embodies the description in the poem while reflecting modern ideas of the mythical Santa Claus. He wears the typical red and white suite tied with a black belt. When he first descends the chimney, he emerges visibly covered in black ashes and soot. His face reminds me strikingly of the Coca Cola version of Santa. Regardless, true to the original text, his blue eyes twinkle, his cheeks dimple, his mouth draws up, and his nose glows cherry red. This Santa Claus is a modern embodiment of the classic St. Nicholas.

The Night Before Christmas (1995) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1995) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1999)

The Night Before Christmas (1999) with illustrations by Bruce Whatley offers a more sinister version of St. Nicholas. Although he is extremely elf-like in his facial features, I must admit that this St. Nicholas projects a bit more eeriness than jolliness. His fur suit is dirtied with ashes and soot, but the look on his face in many of the pictures just plain creeps me out. He appears very close to the description in the original text, but he is definitely a more sinister elf than a jolly fat man. But perhaps a man who breaks into your house through your chimney is slightly inherently sinister?

The Night Before Christmas (1999) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1999) 2

The Night Before Christmas (2010)

The Night Before Christmas (2010) with illustrations by Eric Puybaret features a St. Nicholas that reminds me of a character from a Pixar movie. Aside from the modern cartoon style, most striking about this St. Nicholas is the lack of ashes and soot, even immediately after he descends the chimney. However, his facial features accurately reflect the original poem with twinkling eyes, a cherry red nose, and merry dimples. Nevertheless, he is a much more modern Santa Claus than a classic St. Nicholas.

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The Night Before Christmas (2009)

The Night Before Christmas (2009) with illustrations by Rachel Isadora provides a retelling of the classic poem. Set in Africa rather than Europe or North America, this St. Nicholas is black with long white dreadlocks. The original poem makes no mention of skin color, although the implication of time and place suggests a white Santa. The African St. Nicholas wears a red coat with black and white fur trim and animal-print pants, all harking back to the fur in the original poem. His nose is red like a cherry, his cheeks are dimpled merrily, and his eyes twinkle. He is a definite mix of classic images and contemporary non-Western cultures.

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The Night Before Christmas (2007)

The Night Before Christmas (2007) with illustrations by Gyo Fujikawa features the work of the prolific children’s author and illustrator. This St. Nicholas is short and plump, closely reflecting the description of a jolly old elf in the original poem. When he first comes down the chimney, his red and white fur suit is visibly dirtied with ashes and soot. His blue eyes twinkle, his nose is red, and his cheeks are dimpled. This imagining of St. Nicholas is almost impish. The illustration style makes me think of the mid-twentieth century, which provides a nice mixture of the classic St. Nicholas and a modern Santa Claus.

The Night Before Christmas (2007) 1 The Night Before Christmas (2007) 2

Pop-up The Night Before Christmas (1967)

Pop-up The Night Before Christmas (1967) with illustrations by Marvin Brehm reflects the colors and cartoon styles of the 1960s. St. Nicholas appears extremely comic-like with a rather silly face. However, his nose is as red as a cherry, his cheeks are dimpled, his mouth is drawn up, and his beard is snow white. The white trim on his suit is dirtied with ashes and soot (although blue rather than black or gray because of the colors of the time period) from sliding down chimneys. This St. Nicholas is definitely a more modern Santa Claus firmly rooted in the style of the decade, although he still maintains many of the features described in the original poem.

Pop-up The Night Before Christmas (1967) 1 Pop-up The Night Before Christmas (1967) 2

The Night Before Christmas: Told in Signed English (1994)

The Night Before Christmas: Told in Signed English (1994) with illustrations by Steve Marchesi features a St. Nicholas that looks more like a peddler than the mythical man of more contemporary imaginings. He wears a suit with brown fur trim, which is more accurate of the furs available in England at the time of the writing of the original poem. His suit also appears slightly tattered, indicative of a working class peddler sliding down chimneys. Also true to the original poem, this St. Nicholas has blue eyes that twinkle, a reddened nose, and dimpled cheeks. Of all the portrayals in the many versions of the poem, he is the most true to the poem, reflecting a peddler St. Nicholas rather than a more modern Santa Claus.

The Night Before Christmas: Told in Signed English (1994) 1 The Night Before Christmas: Told in Signed English (1994) 2

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas: Or, Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas (2002)

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas: Or, Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas (2002) with illustrations by Matt Tavares tells the story of the poem in black and white illustrations. Despite the lack of color, however, St. Nicholas reflects a mixture of classic and modern. His facial features match the description in the original poem down to the mouth drawn up like a bow. Although difficult to determine in black and white, the white trim on his suit appears dirtied with ashes and soot. However, he is a bit larger than the elf-like peddler originally described. This St. Nicholas very much makes me think of the Coca Cola Santa Claus.

'Twas the Night Before Christmas: Or, Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas (2002) 1 'Twas the Night Before Christmas: Or, Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas (2002) 2

The Night Before Christmas (1989)

The Night Before Christmas (1989) with illustrations by John Steven Gurney portrays a rather modern Santa Claus with a more European than American look. This St. Nicholas wears the familiar red suit with white fur trim but also dons a gold shirt underneath. He also wears bells on the tops of his boots, which is a bit too fancy for the peddler described in the original poem. However, his facial features accurately portray the original description with twinkly eyes, dimpled cheeks, a drawn up mouth, and a cherry red nose. This St. Nick is nevertheless a more contemporary Santa Claus than a classic St. Nicholas.

The Night Before Christmas (1989) 1 The Night Before Christmas (1989) 2

The Night Before Christmas (2006)

The Night Before Christmas (2006) with illustrations by Richard Jesse Watson offers a unique imagining of St. Nicholas. Most striking about his appearance is his wardrobe. He is dressed all in fur, but, rather than the traditional red suit with white trim, he wears wacky fluffy white fur pants and a red cloak. His face accurately portrays the original poem with twinkling eyes, dimpled cheeks, and a rosy nose. Differing drastically from the Clement Clarke Moore description, however, this Santa drives a high-tech sleigh and wears and aviator hat and goggles. This St. Nick is definitely more modern Santa Claus than traditional St. Nicholas.

The Night Before Christmas (2006) 1The Night Before Christmas (2006) 1 The Night Before Christmas (2006) 2

Little Critter’s The Night Before Christmas (1992)

Little Critter’s The Night Before Christmas (1992) with illustrations by Mercer Mayer features the lovable character, Little Critter, from the beloved children’s series. This St. Nicholas has a very contemporary appearance. His red suit with white trim lacks the ashes and soot of the original poem. His blue eyes, however, twinkle merrily. He also has the cherry red nose, dimpled cheeks, and drawn up mouth and is quite short and plump. Nevertheless, he is definitely more of a modern notion of Santa Claus than a classic version of St. Nicholas.

Little Critter's The Night Before Christmas (1992) 1 Little Critter's The Night Before Christmas (1992) 2 © 2013

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (2010)

‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (2010) with illustrations by Kat Whelan offers an anthropomorphic look at Santa Claus through mouse characters. As a family of mice settles down to sleep, a mouse Santa visits. However, despite the difference in species, the mouse Santa still fairly accurately portrays the St. Nicholas in the original text. As he plummets down the chimney, he sends a plume of ashes and soot into the room. The same ashes and soot cover his red and white fur suit. His face, although a mouse, possesses a cherry red nose, dimpled cheeks, and twinkling eyes. The mouse Santa, although different from the working class peddler in the original poem, still fairly accurately represents the classic St. Nicholas.

'Twas the Night Before Christmas (2010) 1 'Twas the Night Before Christmas (2010) 2

The Grandma Moses Night Before Christmas (1991)

The Grandma Moses Night Before Christmas (1991) with illustrations by Grandma Moses features the paintings of the renowned American folk artist. The St. Nicholas throughout the pages very clearly reflects her folk style of painting. He still wears the red and white fur suit and possesses a long white beard. His facial features, although largely distorted, still project a twinkling merriness as described in the original poem. This St. Nick is very definitely a Grandma Moses Santa Claus who is nonetheless still based off the classic text.

The Grandma Moses Night Before Christmas (1991) 1 The Grandma Moses Night Before Christmas (1991) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson

Do you have a favorite version of ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas?

Image Credits

Picturing Santa Claus: ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas © 2013 Heather Johnson
‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (1912) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (1912) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2010) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2010) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2006) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2006) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1976) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1976) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1984) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1984) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1985) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1985) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1989) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1989) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (2008) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (2008) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: A Michael Hague Pop-up Book (1981) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: A Michael Hague Pop-up Book (1981) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1980) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1980) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1998) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1998) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1984) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1984) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1997) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1997) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (1999) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: A Visit from St. Nicholas (1999) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1994a) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1994a) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1994b) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1994b) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2002) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2002) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1995) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1995) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1999) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1999) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2010) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2010) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2009) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2009) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2007) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2007) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
Pop-up The Night Before Christmas (1967) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
Pop-up The Night Before Christmas (1967) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: Told in Signed English (1994) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas: Told in Signed English (1994) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
‘Twas the Night Before Christmas: Or, Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas (2002) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
‘Twas the Night Before Christmas: Or, Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas (2002) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1989) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (1989) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2006) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Night Before Christmas (2006) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
Little Critter’s The Night Before Christmas (1992) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
Little Critter’s The Night Before Christmas (1992) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (2010) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
‘Twas the Night Before Christmas (2010) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Grandma Moses Night Before Christmas (1991) 1 © 2013 Heather Johnson
The Grandma Moses Night Before Christmas (1991) 2 © 2013 Heather Johnson

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