in , ,

English Irregular Verbs: Simple Past and Past Participles

Advertisement

English Irregular Verbs: Simple Past and Past Participles

Irregular English verbs are verbs whose conjugations differ from the conjugation patterns of regular verbs. Many common English verbs are irregular in the simple past and the past participle. Irregular verbs are verbs in Germanic languages that express the simple past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut). Irregular verbs are also referred to as strong verbs.

The simple past is a verb form that expresses discrete, completed, non-continuous actions or states that occurred in the past. Regular English verbs take an -ed suffix in the simple past; however, irregular English verbs undergo stem, consonant, and other phonological changes that do not follow any real pattern in the simple past.

Past participles, or -en participles, are a nonfinite verb form in English that perform verbal and adjectival functions. Regular English verbs take an -ed suffix to form the past participle; however, irregular English verbs also experience stem, consonant, and other phonological changes that do not follow any real pattern to form the past participle

Note that the listing of two forms indicates a shift in the verb from irregular to regular. Both forms are currently acceptable.

Advertisement
BaseSimple Past
Past Participle
arisearosearisen
awakeawokeawoken
backslidebackslidbackslidden/backslid
bewas/werebeen
bearboreborn
beatbeatbeat
becomebecamebecome
beginbeganbegun
bendbentbent
besetbesetbeset
betbetbet
bidbadebidden
bidbidbid
bindboundbound
bitebitbitten
bleedbledbled
blowblewblown
breakbrokebroken
breedbredbred
bringbroughtbrought
broadcastbroadcastbroadcast
browbeatbrowbeatbrowbeaten/browbeat
buildbuiltbuilt
burnburned/burntburned/burnt
burstburstburst
bustbusted/bustbusted/bust
buyboughtbought
castcastcast
catchcaughtcaught
choosechosechosen
clingclungclung
clotheclothed/cladclothed/clad
comecamecome
costcostcost
creepcreptcrept
crossbreedcrossbredcrossbred
cutcutcut
dealdealtdealt
digdugdug
disprovedisproveddisproved/disproven
divedived/dovedived
dodiddone
drawdrewdrawn
dreamdreamed/dreamtdreamed/dreamt
drinkdrankdrunk
drivedrovedriven
dwelldwelt/dwelleddwelt/dwelled
eatateeaten
fallfellfallen
feedfedfed
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought
findfoundfound
fitfitfit
fleefledfled
flingflungflung
flyflewflown
forbidforbade/forbidforbidden
forecastforecastforecast
forego (forgo)forewentforegone
foretellforetoldforetold
foreseeforesawforeseen
forgetforgotforgotten
forgiveforgaveforgiven
forsakeforsookforsaken
freezefrozefrozen
frostbitefrostbitfrostbitten
getgotgotten
givegavegiven
gowentgone
grindgroundground
growgrewgrown
hand-feedhand-fedhand-fed
handwritehandwrotehandwritten
hanghunghung
havehadhad
hearheardheard
hewhewedhewn/hewed
hidehidhidden
hithithit
holdheldheld
hurthurthurt
inbreedinbredinbred
inlayinlaidinlaid
inputinputinput
interbreedinterbredinterbred
interweaveinterwove/interweavedinterwoven/interweaved
interwindinterwoundinterwound
jerry-buildjerry-builtjerry-built
keepkeptkept
kneelkneltknelt
knitknitknit
knowknewknown
laylaidlaid
leadledled
leapleaped/leaptleaped/leapt
learnlearned/learntlearned/learnt
leaveleftleft
lendlentlent
letletlet
lielaylain
lightlighted/litlighted
lip-readlip-readlip-read
loselostlost
makemademade
meanmeantmeant
meetmetmet
miscastmiscastmiscast
misdealmisdealtmisdealt
misdomisdidmisdone
mishearmisheardmisheard
mislaymislaidmislaid
misleadmisledmisled
mislearnmislearned/mislearntmislearned/mislearnt
misreadmisreadmisread
missetmissetmisset
misspeakmisspokemisspoken
misspellmisspelled/misspeltmisspelled/misspelt
misspendmisspentmisspent
mistakemistookmistaken
misteachmistaughtmistaught
misunderstandmisunderstoodmisunderstood
miswritemiswrotemiswritten
mowmowedmowed/mown
offsetoffsetoffset
outbidoutbidoutbid
outbreedoutbredoutbred
outdooutdidoutdone
outdrawoutdrewoutdrawn
outdrinkoutdrankoutdrunk
outdriveoutdroveoutdriven
outfightoutfoughtoutfought
outflyoutflewoutflown
outgrowoutgrewoutgrown
outrideoutrodeoutridden
outrunoutranoutrun
outselloutsoldoutsold
outshineoutshined/outshoneoutshined/outshone
outshootoutshotoutshot
outsingoutsangoutsung
outsitoutsatoutsat
outsleepoutsleptoutslept
outspeakoutspokeoutspoken
outspeedoutspedoutsped
outspendoutspentoutspent
outswearoutsworeoutsworn
outswimoutswamoutswum
outthinkoutthoughtoutthought
outthrowoutthrewoutthrown
outwriteoutwroteoutwritten
overbidoverbidoverbid
overbreedoverbredoverbred
overbuildoverbuiltoverbuilt
overbuyoverboughtoverbought
overcomeovercameovercome
overdooverdidoverdone
overdrawoverdrewoverdrawn
overdrinkoverdrankoverdrunk
overeatoverateovereaten
overfeedoverfedoverfed
overhangoverhungoverhung
overhearoverheardoverheard
overlayoverlaidoverlaid
overpayoverpaidoverpaid
overrideoverrodeoverridden
overrunoverranoverrun
overseeoversawoverseen
overselloversoldoversold
oversewoversewedoversewn/oversewed
overshootovershotovershot
oversleepoversleptoverslept
overspeakoverspokeoverspoken
overspendoverspentoverspent
overtakeovertookovertaken
overthinkoverthoughtoverthought
overthrowoverthrewoverthrown
overwindoverwoundoverwound
overwriteoverwroteoverwritten
partakepartookpartaken
paypaidpaid
pleadpledpled
prebuildprebuiltprebuilt
predopredidpredone
premakepremadepremade
prepayprepaidprepaid
presellpresoldpresold
presetpresetpreset
preshrinkpreshrankpreshrunk
proofreadproofreadproofread
proveprovedproved/proven
putputput
quick-freezequick-frozequick-frozen
quitquitquit
readreadread
reawakereawokereawaken
rebidrebidrebid
rebindreboundrebound
rebroadcastrebroadcast/rebroadcastedrebroadcast/rebroadcasted
rebuildrebuiltrebuilt
recastrecastrecast
recutrecutrecut
redealredealtredealt
redoredidredone
redrawredrewredrawn
refitrefit/refittedrefit/refitted
regrindregroundreground
regrowregrewregrown
rehangrehungrehung
rehearreheardreheard
reknitreknitted/reknitreknitted/reknit
relayrelaidrelaid
relearnrelearned/relearntrelearned/relearnt
relightrelit/relightedrelit/relighted
remakeremaderemade
repayrepaidrepaid
rereadrereadreread
rerunreranrerun
resellresoldresold
resendresentresent
resetresetreset
resewresewedresewn/resewed
retakeretookretaken
reteachretaughtretaught
retearretoreretorn
retellretoldretold
rethinkrethoughtrethought
retreadretreadretread
retrofitretrofitted/retrofitretrofitted/retrofit
rewakerewoke/rewakedrewaken/rewaked
rewearreworereworn
reweaverewove/reweavedrewoven/reweaved
rewedrewed/reweddedrewed/rewedded
rewetrewet/rewettedrewet/rewetted
rewinrewonrewon
rewindrewoundrewound
rewriterewroterewritten
ridridrid
rideroderidden
ringrangrung
riseroserisen
roughcastroughcastroughcast
runranrun
sawsawedsawed/sawn
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
seeksoughtsought
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
setsetset
sewsewedsewed/sewn
shakeshookshaken
shaveshavedshaved/shaven
shearshoreshorn
shedshedshed
shineshoneshone
shoeshoedshoed/shod
shootshotshot
showshowedshowed/shown
shrinkshrankshrunk
shutshutshut
sight-readsight-readsight-read
singsangsung
sinksanksunk
sitsatsat
slayslewslain
sleepsleptslept
slideslidslid
slingslungslung
slinkslinked/slunkslinked/slunk
slitslitslit
smellsmelled/smeltsmelled/smelt
smitesmotesmitten
sneaksneaked/snucksneaked/snuck
sowsowedsowed/sown
speakspokespoken
speedspedsped
spendspentspent
spillspilled/spiltspilled/spilt
spinspunspun
spitspit/spatspit
splitsplitsplit
spoon-feedspoon-fedspoon-fed
spreadspreadspread
springsprang/sprungsprung
standstoodstood
stealstolestolen
stickstuckstuck
stingstungstung
stinkstankstunk
strewstrewedstrewn/strewed
stridestrodestridden
strikestruckstruck/stricken
stringstrungstrung
strivestrovestriven
subletsubletsublet
sunburnsunburned/sunburntsunburned/sunburnt
swearsworesworn
sweatsweat/sweatedsweat/sweated
sweepsweptswept
swellswelledswelled/swollen
swimswamswum
swingswungswung
taketooktaken
teachtaughttaught
teartoretorn
telecasttelecasttelecast
telltoldtold
test-drivetest-drovetest-driven
test-flytest-flewtest-flown
thinkthoughtthought
thrivethrived/throvethrived
throwthrewthrown
thrustthrustthrust
treadtrodtrodden
typecasttypecasttypecast
typesettypesettypeset
typewritetypewrotetypewritten
unbendunbentunbent
unbindunboundunbound
underbidunderbidunderbid
undercutundercutundercut
underfeedunderfedunderfed
undergounderwentundergone
underlieunderlayunderlain
undersellundersoldundersold
underspendunderspentunderspent
understandunderstoodunderstood
undertakeundertookundertaken
underwriteunderwroteunderwritten
undoundidundone
unfreezeunfrozeunfrozen
unhangunhungunhung
unhideunhidunhidden
unlearnunlearned/unlearntunlearned/unlearnt
unsewunsewedunsewn/unsewed
unslingunslungunslung
unspinunspununspun
unstickunstuckunstuck
unstringunstrungunstrung
unweaveunwove/unweavedunwoven/unweaved
unwindunwoundunwound
upholdupheldupheld
upsetupsetupset
wakewokewoken
waylaywaylaidwaylaid
wearworeworn
weaveweaved/woveweaved/woven
wedwed/weddedwed/wedded
weepweptwept
wetwet/wettedwet/wetted
windwoundwound
winwonwon
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawn
withholdwithheldwithheld
withstandwithstoodwithstood
wringwrungwrung
writewrotewritten

 

Also download a free printable copy of the list of irregular English verbs: English Irregular Verbs Simple Past and Past Participles.

References

Hopper, Paul J. 1999. A short course in grammar. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Huddleston, Rodney. 1984. Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kilby, David. 1984. Descriptive syntax and the English verb. Dover, New Hampshire: Croom Helm.
Leech, Geoffrey N. 2004. Meaning and the English verb. Harlow, English: Pearson Longman.

Advertisement

Written by Heather Johnson

Heather is a writer, librarian, linguist, wife, and mother who loves her husband, daughter, son, dogs, and cat. She writes The Parenting Patch, which is a parenting blog, information, and news plus reviews, recipes, crafts, homeschooling, and more.

Grammatical Functions of English Noun Clauses

Grammatical Functions of English Noun Clauses

Toddler Summer Reading Program: Week 2

Toddler Summer Reading Program: Week 2