Connect
To Top

    English Irregular Verbs: Simple Past and Past Participles

    English Irregular Verbs: Simple Past and Past Participles

    Irregular English verbs are verbs whose conjugations differ from the conjugation patterns of regular verbs. Many common English verbs are irregular in the simple past and the past participle. Irregular verbs are verbs in Germanic languages that express the simple past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut). Irregular verbs are also referred to as strong verbs.

    The simple past is a verb form that expresses discrete, completed, non-continuous actions or states that occurred in the past. Regular English verbs take an -ed suffix in the simple past; however, irregular English verbs undergo stem, consonant, and other phonological changes that do not follow any real pattern in the simple past.

    Past participles, or -en participles, are a nonfinite verb form in English that perform verbal and adjectival functions. Regular English verbs take an -ed suffix to form the past participle; however, irregular English verbs also experience stem, consonant, and other phonological changes that do not follow any real pattern to form the past participle

    Note that the listing of two forms indicates a shift in the verb from irregular to regular. Both forms are currently acceptable.

    BaseSimple Past
    Past Participle
    arisearosearisen
    awakeawokeawoken
    backslidebackslidbackslidden/backslid
    bewas/werebeen
    bearboreborn
    beatbeatbeat
    becomebecamebecome
    beginbeganbegun
    bendbentbent
    besetbesetbeset
    betbetbet
    bidbadebidden
    bidbidbid
    bindboundbound
    bitebitbitten
    bleedbledbled
    blowblewblown
    breakbrokebroken
    breedbredbred
    bringbroughtbrought
    broadcastbroadcastbroadcast
    browbeatbrowbeatbrowbeaten/browbeat
    buildbuiltbuilt
    burnburned/burntburned/burnt
    burstburstburst
    bustbusted/bustbusted/bust
    buyboughtbought
    castcastcast
    catchcaughtcaught
    choosechosechosen
    clingclungclung
    clotheclothed/cladclothed/clad
    comecamecome
    costcostcost
    creepcreptcrept
    crossbreedcrossbredcrossbred
    cutcutcut
    dealdealtdealt
    digdugdug
    disprovedisproveddisproved/disproven
    divedived/dovedived
    dodiddone
    drawdrewdrawn
    dreamdreamed/dreamtdreamed/dreamt
    drinkdrankdrunk
    drivedrovedriven
    dwelldwelt/dwelleddwelt/dwelled
    eatateeaten
    fallfellfallen
    feedfedfed
    feelfeltfelt
    fightfoughtfought
    findfoundfound
    fitfitfit
    fleefledfled
    flingflungflung
    flyflewflown
    forbidforbade/forbidforbidden
    forecastforecastforecast
    forego (forgo)forewentforegone
    foretellforetoldforetold
    foreseeforesawforeseen
    forgetforgotforgotten
    forgiveforgaveforgiven
    forsakeforsookforsaken
    freezefrozefrozen
    frostbitefrostbitfrostbitten
    getgotgotten
    givegavegiven
    gowentgone
    grindgroundground
    growgrewgrown
    hand-feedhand-fedhand-fed
    handwritehandwrotehandwritten
    hanghunghung
    havehadhad
    hearheardheard
    hewhewedhewn/hewed
    hidehidhidden
    hithithit
    holdheldheld
    hurthurthurt
    inbreedinbredinbred
    inlayinlaidinlaid
    inputinputinput
    interbreedinterbredinterbred
    interweaveinterwove/interweavedinterwoven/interweaved
    interwindinterwoundinterwound
    jerry-buildjerry-builtjerry-built
    keepkeptkept
    kneelkneltknelt
    knitknitknit
    knowknewknown
    laylaidlaid
    leadledled
    leapleaped/leaptleaped/leapt
    learnlearned/learntlearned/learnt
    leaveleftleft
    lendlentlent
    letletlet
    lielaylain
    lightlighted/litlighted
    lip-readlip-readlip-read
    loselostlost
    makemademade
    meanmeantmeant
    meetmetmet
    miscastmiscastmiscast
    misdealmisdealtmisdealt
    misdomisdidmisdone
    mishearmisheardmisheard
    mislaymislaidmislaid
    misleadmisledmisled
    mislearnmislearned/mislearntmislearned/mislearnt
    misreadmisreadmisread
    missetmissetmisset
    misspeakmisspokemisspoken
    misspellmisspelled/misspeltmisspelled/misspelt
    misspendmisspentmisspent
    mistakemistookmistaken
    misteachmistaughtmistaught
    misunderstandmisunderstoodmisunderstood
    miswritemiswrotemiswritten
    mowmowedmowed/mown
    offsetoffsetoffset
    outbidoutbidoutbid
    outbreedoutbredoutbred
    outdooutdidoutdone
    outdrawoutdrewoutdrawn
    outdrinkoutdrankoutdrunk
    outdriveoutdroveoutdriven
    outfightoutfoughtoutfought
    outflyoutflewoutflown
    outgrowoutgrewoutgrown
    outrideoutrodeoutridden
    outrunoutranoutrun
    outselloutsoldoutsold
    outshineoutshined/outshoneoutshined/outshone
    outshootoutshotoutshot
    outsingoutsangoutsung
    outsitoutsatoutsat
    outsleepoutsleptoutslept
    outspeakoutspokeoutspoken
    outspeedoutspedoutsped
    outspendoutspentoutspent
    outswearoutsworeoutsworn
    outswimoutswamoutswum
    outthinkoutthoughtoutthought
    outthrowoutthrewoutthrown
    outwriteoutwroteoutwritten
    overbidoverbidoverbid
    overbreedoverbredoverbred
    overbuildoverbuiltoverbuilt
    overbuyoverboughtoverbought
    overcomeovercameovercome
    overdooverdidoverdone
    overdrawoverdrewoverdrawn
    overdrinkoverdrankoverdrunk
    overeatoverateovereaten
    overfeedoverfedoverfed
    overhangoverhungoverhung
    overhearoverheardoverheard
    overlayoverlaidoverlaid
    overpayoverpaidoverpaid
    overrideoverrodeoverridden
    overrunoverranoverrun
    overseeoversawoverseen
    overselloversoldoversold
    oversewoversewedoversewn/oversewed
    overshootovershotovershot
    oversleepoversleptoverslept
    overspeakoverspokeoverspoken
    overspendoverspentoverspent
    overtakeovertookovertaken
    overthinkoverthoughtoverthought
    overthrowoverthrewoverthrown
    overwindoverwoundoverwound
    overwriteoverwroteoverwritten
    partakepartookpartaken
    paypaidpaid
    pleadpledpled
    prebuildprebuiltprebuilt
    predopredidpredone
    premakepremadepremade
    prepayprepaidprepaid
    presellpresoldpresold
    presetpresetpreset
    preshrinkpreshrankpreshrunk
    proofreadproofreadproofread
    proveprovedproved/proven
    putputput
    quick-freezequick-frozequick-frozen
    quitquitquit
    readreadread
    reawakereawokereawaken
    rebidrebidrebid
    rebindreboundrebound
    rebroadcastrebroadcast/rebroadcastedrebroadcast/rebroadcasted
    rebuildrebuiltrebuilt
    recastrecastrecast
    recutrecutrecut
    redealredealtredealt
    redoredidredone
    redrawredrewredrawn
    refitrefit/refittedrefit/refitted
    regrindregroundreground
    regrowregrewregrown
    rehangrehungrehung
    rehearreheardreheard
    reknitreknitted/reknitreknitted/reknit
    relayrelaidrelaid
    relearnrelearned/relearntrelearned/relearnt
    relightrelit/relightedrelit/relighted
    remakeremaderemade
    repayrepaidrepaid
    rereadrereadreread
    rerunreranrerun
    resellresoldresold
    resendresentresent
    resetresetreset
    resewresewedresewn/resewed
    retakeretookretaken
    reteachretaughtretaught
    retearretoreretorn
    retellretoldretold
    rethinkrethoughtrethought
    retreadretreadretread
    retrofitretrofitted/retrofitretrofitted/retrofit
    rewakerewoke/rewakedrewaken/rewaked
    rewearreworereworn
    reweaverewove/reweavedrewoven/reweaved
    rewedrewed/reweddedrewed/rewedded
    rewetrewet/rewettedrewet/rewetted
    rewinrewonrewon
    rewindrewoundrewound
    rewriterewroterewritten
    ridridrid
    rideroderidden
    ringrangrung
    riseroserisen
    roughcastroughcastroughcast
    runranrun
    sawsawedsawed/sawn
    saysaidsaid
    seesawseen
    seeksoughtsought
    sellsoldsold
    sendsentsent
    setsetset
    sewsewedsewed/sewn
    shakeshookshaken
    shaveshavedshaved/shaven
    shearshoreshorn
    shedshedshed
    shineshoneshone
    shoeshoedshoed/shod
    shootshotshot
    showshowedshowed/shown
    shrinkshrankshrunk
    shutshutshut
    sight-readsight-readsight-read
    singsangsung
    sinksanksunk
    sitsatsat
    slayslewslain
    sleepsleptslept
    slideslidslid
    slingslungslung
    slinkslinked/slunkslinked/slunk
    slitslitslit
    smellsmelled/smeltsmelled/smelt
    smitesmotesmitten
    sneaksneaked/snucksneaked/snuck
    sowsowedsowed/sown
    speakspokespoken
    speedspedsped
    spendspentspent
    spillspilled/spiltspilled/spilt
    spinspunspun
    spitspit/spatspit
    splitsplitsplit
    spoon-feedspoon-fedspoon-fed
    spreadspreadspread
    springsprang/sprungsprung
    standstoodstood
    stealstolestolen
    stickstuckstuck
    stingstungstung
    stinkstankstunk
    strewstrewedstrewn/strewed
    stridestrodstridden
    strikestruckstruck/stricken
    stringstrungstrung
    strivestrovestriven
    subletsubletsublet
    sunburnsunburned/sunburntsunburned/sunburnt
    swearsworesworn
    sweatsweat/sweatedsweat/sweated
    sweepsweptswept
    swellswelledswelled/swollen
    swimswamswum
    swingswungswung
    taketooktaken
    teachtaughttaught
    teartoretorn
    telecasttelecasttelecast
    telltoldtold
    test-drivetest-drovetest-driven
    test-flytest-flewtest-flown
    thinkthoughtthought
    thrivethrived/throvethrived
    throwthrewthrown
    thrustthrustthrust
    treadtrodtrodden
    typecasttypecasttypecast
    typesettypesettypeset
    typewritetypewrotetypewritten
    unbendunbentunbent
    unbindunboundunbound
    underbidunderbidunderbid
    undercutundercutundercut
    underfeedunderfedunderfed
    undergounderwentundergone
    underlieunderlayunderlain
    undersellundersoldundersold
    underspendunderspentunderspent
    understandunderstoodunderstood
    undertakeundertookundertaken
    underwriteunderwroteunderwritten
    undoundidundone
    unfreezeunfrozeunfrozen
    unhangunhungunhung
    unhideunhidunhidden
    unlearnunlearned/unlearntunlearned/unlearnt
    unsewunsewedunsewn/unsewed
    unslingunslungunslung
    unspinunspununspun
    unstickunstuckunstuck
    unstringunstrungunstrung
    unweaveunwove/unweavedunwoven/unweaved
    unwindunwoundunwound
    upholdupheldupheld
    upsetupsetupset
    wakewokewoken
    waylaywaylaidwaylaid
    wearworeworn
    weaveweaved/woveweaved/woven
    wedwed/weddedwed/wedded
    weepweptwept
    wetwet/wettedwet/wetted
    windwoundwound
    winwonwon
    withdrawwithdrewwithdrawn
    withholdwithheldwithheld
    withstandwithstoodwithstood
    wringwrungwrung
    writewrotewritten

     

    Also download a free printable copy of the list of irregular English verbs: English Irregular Verbs Simple Past and Past Participles.

    References

    Hopper, Paul J. 1999. A short course in grammar. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
    Huddleston, Rodney. 1984. Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kilby, David. 1984. Descriptive syntax and the English verb. Dover, New Hampshire: Croom Helm.
    Leech, Geoffrey N. 2004. Meaning and the English verb. Harlow, English: Pearson Longman.

    More in English Verbs