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    Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Risk Categories: Medications D

    Pristiq Pills

    From Dabigatran Etexilate to Dyphylline, learn about the safety of the most common medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding with the following general overview of drugs that begin with the letter D.

    MedicationPregnancy Risk CategoryBreastfeeding Risk Category
    Dabigatran Etexilate
    (Pradaxa)
    CL3
    Dactinomycin
    (Cosmegen, Actinomycin D)
    DL5
    Dalfopristin + Quinupristin
    (Synercid)
    BL3
    Dalteparin Sodium
    (Fragmin, Low MW Heparin, Low Molecular Weight Heparin)
    BL2
    Danazol
    (Danocrine, Cyclomen, Azol, Danol)
    XL5
    Dantrolene
    (Dantrium)
    CL4
    Dapsone
    (Aczone, Avlosulfon, Maloprim)
    CL4
    Daptomycin
    (Cubicin)
    BL1
    Darbepoetin Alfa
    (Aranesp)
    CL3
    Darifenacin
    (Enablex)
    CL3
    Daunorubicin
    (Cerubidin, Daunoblastina, Daunoblastin, DaunoXome, Cerubidine)
    DL5
    DEET
    (6-12 Plus, Off!, Deep Woods Off!, Cutter Insect Repellent, Muskol, Diethyl-m-Toluamide, Diethyltoluamide)
    Probably SafeL3
    Deferasirox
    (Exjade)
    BL3
    Deferoxamine
    (Desferal, Desferrioxamine)
    CL3
    Dehydroepiandrosterone
    (DHEA)
    Possibly HazardousL5
    Delavirdine
    (Rescriptor)
    CL5
    Denosumab
    (Prolia, Xgeva)
    CL4
    Desipramine
    (Pertofrane, Norpremin, Novo-Desipramine, Pertofran)
    CL2
    Desloratadine
    (Clarinex)
    CL2
    Desmopressin Acetate
    (DDAVP, Stimate, Rhinyle, Minirin, Desmospray)
    BL2
    DesogestrelXL3
    Desogestrel + Ethinyl Estradiol
    (Mircette, Cyclessa, Ortho-Cept, Apri, Kariva, Desogen, Reclipsen, Velivet, Marvelon)
    XL3
    Desonide
    (Desonate, DesOwen, LoKara, Verdeso, Desocort, PMS-Desonide)
    CL3
    Desvenlafaxine
    (Pristiq)
    CL3
    Dexamethasone
    (Decadron, AK-Dex, Maxidex)
    CL3
    DexbrompheniramineBL3
    Dexchlorpheniramine
    (Polaramine)
    BL3
    Dexlansoprazole
    (Kapidex, Dexilant)
    BL2
    Dexmethylphenidate
    (Focalin)
    CL3
    Dextroamphetamine
    (Dexedrine, Amphetamine, Oxydess, Adderall, Vyvanse, Adderall XR, Dexamphetamine, Dexten, Liquadd)
    CL3 (clinical doses)
    L5 (if abused)
    Dextromethorphan
    (Rotitussin, Pediacare, Creomulsion, Vicks 44 Cough Relief, Dexalone, Hold DM, DM, Benylin, Delsym, Pertussin, Robitussin DM, Balminil-DM, Benylin DM, Cosylan, Babee Cof Syrup, Benylin Pediatric Formula)
    CL1
    Diatrizoate
    (Angiovist, Cardiografin, Cystografin, Hypaque, Reno-M, Renografin Urovist, Sinografin, Retrografin, Renografin-30, Renografin-60, Renografin-Dip, Gastrografin)
    DL2
    Diazepam
    (Valium, Apo-Diazepam, Mavel, Novo-Dipam, Vivol, Antenex, Ducene, Sudapam)
    DL3
    L4 (chronic use)
    Dibucaine
    (Nupercainal, Cinchocaine, Ultraproct, Dermacaine)
    CL3
    Diclofenac
    (Cataflam, Voltaren, Apo-Diclo, Novo-Difenac, Fenac, Pennsaid, Zipsor, Flector Patch, Cambia, Novo-Diclo, Voltarol)
    B (topical)
    C (oral)
    D (third trimester)
    L2
    Dicloxacillin
    (Pathocil, Dycill, Dynapen, Diclocil, Dicloxsig)
    BL1
    Dicylcomine
    (Bentyl, Antispas, Spasmoject, Bentylol, Formulex, Lomine, Merbentyl)
    BL4
    Didanosine
    (Videx)
    BL5
    DienogestXL3
    Dienogest + Estradiol
    (Natazia)
    XL3
    Diethylpropion
    (Tepanil, Tenuate, Dospan)
    BL5
    Diethylstilbestrol
    (DES, Honvol, Honvan, Fosfestrol, Apstil)
    XL5
    Diflunisal
    (Dolobid, Apo-Diflunisal, Novo-Diflunisal)
    C (first, second trimester)
    D (third trimester)
    L3
    Difluprednate
    (Durezol, Epitopic, Myser)
    CL3
    Digitoxin
    (Crystodigin, Digitaline)
    CL3
    Digoxin
    (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps, Novo-Digoxin)
    CL2
    Diltiazem
    (Cardizen SR, Dilacor-XR, Cardizem CD, Cartia XT, Diltiazem HCL)
    CL3
    Dimenhydrinate
    (Marmine, Dramamine, Gravol, Hydrate, Triptone, Traveltabs, Andrumin, Travacalm)
    BL2
    DimethiconeProbably SafeL3
    Dimethylsufoxide
    (DMSO, Rimso-50, DMSO2, MSM)
    CL3
    Dinoprostone
    (Prostin E2, Prepidil, Cervidil, Propress)
    C (during delivery)
    X (first, second trimesters)
    L3
    Diphenhydramine
    (Benadryl, Cheracol, Allerdryl, Insomnal, Nytol, Delixir, Paedamin)
    BL2
    Diphenoxylate
    (Lomotil, Lofene, Lofenoxal, Tropergen)
    CL3
    Diphenoxylate + Atropine
    (Lomotil, Di-Atro Dimotal, Lomocot, Lonox, Vi-Atro, Tropergen)
    CL3
    Diphtheria + Tetanus + Pertussis Vaccine
    (DTap/Tdap/DTP)
    BL2
    Diphtheria + Tentanus Vaccine
    (DT, Td, Decavac)
    CL3
    Diphtheria VaccineCL3
    Dipivefrin
    (AK-Pro, Propine, PSM-Dipivefrin)
    BL2
    Dipyridamole
    (Persatine, Apo-Dipyridamole, Novo-Dipiradol, Persantin)
    BL3
    Dirithromycin
    (Dynabac)
    CL3
    Disopyramide
    (Norpace, Napamide, Rythmodan, Norpace, Isomide)
    CL2
    Disulfiram
    (Antabuse)
    CL5
    Dibutamine
    (Dobutrex)
    BL2
    Docetaxel
    (Taxotere)
    DL5
    Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)Probably SafeL3
    Docosanol
    (Abreva, Healip, Behenyl Alcohol)
    Probably SafeL3
    Docusate
    (Colace, Docusate, Softgels,Dialose, Surfak)
    CL2
    Dolasetron
    (Anzemet, Dolasetron Mesylate)
    BL3
    Domperidone
    (Motilium, Motilidone)
    CL1
    Donepezil
    (Aricept)
    CL3
    Dopamine
    (Intropin, Revimine)
    CL2
    Dopamine-Dobutamine
    (Intropin, Revimine-Dobutrex)
    CL2
    Doripenem
    (Doribax)
    BL3
    Dornase
    (Pulmozyme)
    BL3
    Dorzolamide
    (Trusopt)
    CL3
    Dothiepin
    (Prothiaden, Dothep)
    DL2
    Doxazosin Mesylate
    (Cardura, Carduran)
    CL4
    Doxepin
    (Adapin, Sinequan, Triadapin, Novo-Doxepin, Deptran)
    CL5
    Doxepin Cream
    (Zonalon Cream, Zonalon)
    BL4
    Doxercalciferol
    (Hectorol)
    BL3
    Doxorubicin
    (Adriamycin, Adriblastina, Caelyx)
    DL5
    Doxycycline
    (Doxychel, Vibramcycin, Periostat, Doxylin, Vibra-Tabs, Apo-Doxy, Doxycin, Vibramycin, Doryx, Doxylar)
    DL3
    Doxylamine
    (Unisom Nighttime, Dozile, Mersyndol, Panalgesic, Syndol)
    AL3
    Dronabinol
    (Marinol)
    CL3
    Dronedarone
    (Multaq, Dronedarone Winthrop, Dronedarone Sanofi)
     XL3
    Droperidol
    (Inapsine, Droleptan)
    CL3
    Drospirenone
    (Yasmin)
    XL3
    Drospirenone + Ethinyl Estradiol
    (Gianvi, Ocella, Yaz, Yasmin, Loryna, Zarah, Vestura)
    XL3
    Drotrecogin Alfa
    (Xigris)
    CL5
    Duloxetine
    (Cymbalta, Ariclaim, Duceten, Xeristar, Yentreve)
    CL3
    Dyclonine Hydrochloride
    (Cepacol Maximum Strength, Sucrets Children’s Formula, Sucrets Maxiumum Strength, Sucrets Regular Strength)
    CL3
    Dyphylline
    (Dilor, Lufyllin, Dyphylline, Broncho-Grippol, Silbephylline, Noradran)
    CL3

     

    Pregnancy Risk Categories

    A. Controlled Studies Show No Risk

    Adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in any trimester of pregnancy.

    B. No Evidence of Risk in Humans

    Adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women have not shown increased risk of fetal abnormalities despite adverse findings in animals, or, in the absence of adequate human studies, animal studies show no fetal risk. The chance of fetal harm is remote but remains a possibility.

    C. Risk Cannot Be Ruled Out

    Adequate,well-controlled human studies are lacking, and animal studies have shown a risk to the fetus or are lacking as well. There is a chance of fetal harm if the drug is administered during pregnancy, but the potential benefits may outweigh the potential risks.

    D. Positive Evidence of Risk

    Studies in humans, or investigational or post-marketing data, have demonstrated fetal risk. Nevertheless, potential benefits from the use of the drug may outweigh the potential risk. For example, the drug may be acceptable if needed in a life-threatening situation or serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective.

    X. Contraindicated in Pregnancy

    Studies in animals or humans, or investigational or post-marketing reports, have demonstrated positive evidence of fetal abnormalities or risks which clearly outweighs any possible benefit to the patient.

    Breastfeeding Risk Categories

    L1. Safest

    Drug which has been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers without any observed increase in adverse effects in the infant. Controlled studies in breastfeeding women fail to demonstrate a risk to the infant and the possibility of harm to the breastfeeding infant is remote, or the product is not orally bioavailable in an infant.

    L2. Safer

    Drug which has been studied in a limited number of breastfeeding women without an increase in adverse effects in the infant; and/or, the evidence of a demonstrated risk which is likely to follow use of this medication in a breastfeeding woman is remote.

    L3. Moderately Safe

    There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women; however, the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.

    L4. Possibly Hazardous

    There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).

    L5. Contraindicated

    Studies in breastfeeding mothers have demonstrated that there is significant and documented risk to the infant based on human experience, or it is a medication that has a high risk of causing significant damage to an infant. The risk of using the drug in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs any possible benefit from breastfeeding. The drug is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding an infant.

    Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is not meant to replace the professional medical advice from your health care provider. For detailed information on specific medications or for information on medications not listed, please consult your health care provider.

    References

    Hale, Thomas W. 2008. Medications and mothers’ milk, 13th edn. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing.
    Hale, Thomas W. 2010. Medications and mothers’ milk, 14th edn. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing.
    Hale, Thomas W. 2012. Medications and mothers’ milk, 15th edn. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing.
    Safe Fetus: http://safefetus.com/index.php
    Search Medica RX: http://www.mims.com/USA

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