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    Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Risk Categories: Medications F

    Nasal Spray

    From Famciclovir to Furosemide, learn about the safety of the most common medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding with the following general overview of drugs that begin with the letter F.

    MedicationPregnancy Risk CategoryBreastfeeding Risk Category
    Famciclovir
    (Famvir)
    BL2
    Famotidine
    (Pepcid, Axid-AR, Pepcid-AC, Apo-Famotidine, Novo-Famotidine, Amfamox, Pepcidine)
    BL1
    Febuxostat
    (Uloric, Adenuric)
    CL3
    Felbamate
    (Felbatol)
    CL4
    Felodipine
    (Plendil, Renedil, Agon SR, Plendil ER)
    CL3
    Fendolopam
    (Corlopam)
    BL3
    FennelPossibly HazardousL
    Fenofibrate
    (Tricor)
    CL3
    Fenoprofen
    (Nalfon, Fenopron, Progesic)
    C (first, second trimesters)
    D (third trimester)
    L2
    Fentanyl
    (Sublimaze, Duragesic, Onsolis, Lazanda)
    CL2
    FenugreekPossibly HazardousL3
    Ferumoxytol
    (Feraheme)
    CL3
    Fesoterodine
    (Toviaz)
    CL3
    Fexofenadine
    (Allegra)
    CL2
    Fidaxomicin
    (Dificid)
    BL2
    Filgrastim
    (Neupogen)
    CL3
    Fingolimod
    (Gilenya)
    CL4
    Flavoxate
    (Urispas, Apo-Flavoxate)
    BL3
    Flecainide Acetate
    (Tambocor)
    CL3
    Floxacillin
    (Flucil, Fluclos, Flucloxacillin, Flopen, Floxapen, Staphylex, Flu-Amp, Flu-Clomix, Magnapen)
    BL1
    Fluconazole
    (Diflucan)
    C
    D (in high doses 400-800 mg/day)
    L2
    Flucytosine
    (Ancobon)
    CL4
    Fludeoxyglucose F 18
    (Fludeoxyglucose 18F)
    CL4
    Fludrocortisone
    (Florinef, Myconef)
    CL3
    Flunarizine
    (Sibelium, Novo-Flunarizine)
    CL4
    Flunisolide
    (Nasalide, Aerobid, Bronalide, Rhinalar, PMS-Flunisolide, Syntaris)
    CL3
    Flunitrazepam
    (Rohypnol, Hypnodorm, Raohypnol)
    DL3
    L4 (chronic use)
    Fluocinolone
    (Synalar, Capex Shampoo, Flucort-N, Retisert, Dermotic)
    CL3
    Fluocinolone + Hydroquinone + Tretinoin
    (Tri-Luma)
    CL3
    Fluorescein
    (AK-Fluor, Fluorescite, Funduscein-10, Ophthifluor, Fluorescein Sodium, Ful-Glo, Fluorets, Fluor-I-Strip)
    C (topical)
    X (parenteral)
    L3
    Fluoride
    (Pediaflor, Flura, Fluor-A-Day, Fluotic, Fluorigard)
    CL2
    Fluorouracil
    (5FU, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, Carac, Cytosafe, Effluderm)
    DL4
    Fluoxetine
    (Prozac, Apo-Fluoxetine, Novo-Fluoxetine, Lovan, Zactin)
     CL2
    Fluoxetine + Olanzapine
    (Symbyax)
    CL3
    Fluphenazine
    (Prolixin, Permitil, Apo-Fluphenazine, Modecate, Moditen, Anatensol)
    CL3
    Flurazepam
    (Dalmane, Apo-Flurazepam, Novo-Flurazepam)
    XL3
    Flurbiprofen
    (Ansaid, Froben, Ocufen)
    B (first, second trimesters)
    C (third trimester)
    L2
    Fluticasone
    (Flonase, Flovent, Cutivate, Veramyst, Flixotide, Flixonase)
    CL3
    Fluticasone + Salmeretol
    (Advair, Seretide)
    CL3
    Fluvastatin
    (Lescol, Lescol XL, Vastin)
    XL3
    Fluvoxamine
    (Luvox, Apo-Fluvoxamine, Faverin, Floxyfral, Myroxim)
    CL2
    Folic Acid
    (Folacin, Wellcovorin, Apo-Folic, Folvite, Novo-Folacid, Accomin, Bioglan Daily, Magafol, Vitamin B-9)
    AL1
    Follicle Stimulating Hormones
    (Metrodin, Fertinex, FSH, Follistim, Follitropin Alpha, Follitropin Beta, Gonal-F, Fertinorm HP)
    XL3
    Fondaparinux Sodium
    (Aristra)
    BL3
    Formaldehyde
    (Formalin, Methyl Aldehyde)
    XL4
    Formoterol
    (Foradil Aerolizer, Symbicort, Formoterol Fumarate)
    CL3
    Formoterol + Mometasone
    (Dulera)
    CL3
    Foscarnet Sodium
    (Foscavir)
    CL4
    Fosfomycin Trometamol
    (Monurol)
    BL3
    Fosinopril
    (Monopril, Staril)
    C (first trimester
    D (second, third trimesters)
    L3
    L4 (premature)
    Fosphenytoin
    (Cerebyx)
    DL2
    Frovatriptan Succinate
    (Frova)
    CL3
    Furazolidone
    (Furoxone)
    CL2
    L4 (early postpartum)
    Furosemide
    (Lasix, Apo-Furosemide, Novo-Semide, Frusemide, Uremide, Frusid)
    CL3

     

    Pregnancy Risk Categories

    A. Controlled Studies Show No Risk

    Adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in any trimester of pregnancy.

    B. No Evidence of Risk in Humans

    Adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women have not shown increased risk of fetal abnormalities despite adverse findings in animals, or, in the absence of adequate human studies, animal studies show no fetal risk. The chance of fetal harm is remote but remains a possibility.

    C. Risk Cannot Be Ruled Out

    Adequate,well-controlled human studies are lacking, and animal studies have shown a risk to the fetus or are lacking as well. There is a chance of fetal harm if the drug is administered during pregnancy, but the potential benefits may outweigh the potential risks.

    D. Positive Evidence of Risk

    Studies in humans, or investigational or post-marketing data, have demonstrated fetal risk. Nevertheless, potential benefits from the use of the drug may outweigh the potential risk. For example, the drug may be acceptable if needed in a life-threatening situation or serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective.

    X. Contraindicated in Pregnancy

    Studies in animals or humans, or investigational or post-marketing reports, have demonstrated positive evidence of fetal abnormalities or risks which clearly outweighs any possible benefit to the patient.

    Breastfeeding Risk Categories

    L1. Safest

    Drug which has been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers without any observed increase in adverse effects in the infant. Controlled studies in breastfeeding women fail to demonstrate a risk to the infant and the possibility of harm to the breastfeeding infant is remote, or the product is not orally bioavailable in an infant.

    L2. Safer

    Drug which has been studied in a limited number of breastfeeding women without an increase in adverse effects in the infant; and/or, the evidence of a demonstrated risk which is likely to follow use of this medication in a breastfeeding woman is remote.

    L3. Moderately Safe

    There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women; however, the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.

    L4. Possibly Hazardous

    There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).

    L5. Contraindicated

    Studies in breastfeeding mothers have demonstrated that there is significant and documented risk to the infant based on human experience, or it is a medication that has a high risk of causing significant damage to an infant. The risk of using the drug in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs any possible benefit from breastfeeding. The drug is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding an infant.

    Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is not meant to replace the professional medical advice from your health care provider. For detailed information on specific medications or for information on medications not listed, please consult your health care provider.

    References

    Hale, Thomas W. 2008. Medications and mothers’ milk, 13th edn. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing.
    Hale, Thomas W. 2010. Medications and mothers’ milk, 14th edn. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing.
    Hale, Thomas W. 2012. Medications and mothers’ milk, 15th edn. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing.
    Safe Fetus: http://safefetus.com/index.php
    Search Medica RX: http://www.mims.com/USA

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