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    Word Matrix: D (“give”)

    Word Matrix: D

    After returning from a two-week family vacation last weekend, I found my sleep schedule completely messed up. Instead of tossing and turning in bed, I decided to peruse linguistics Twitter. I came upon a tweet from fellow word inquirer Sally Cole asking if <add> and <*addit> are twin bases. I quickly fell down a word study rabbit hole.

    First, I could see that the form would have to be <addite> to keep the <t> from doubling per English spelling rules. Without the replaceable <e>, <*addit + ion> would result in <*addittion>. Then I did some more digging on Etymonline.

    The noun <addition> comes from Old French <adition>, from Latin <additionem> (nominative <additio>), which is a noun of action from the past participle stem of <addere>, which comes from <ad> “to” + <-dere>, combining form meaning “to put, place,” from <dare> “to give.” The verb <add> also comes from Latin <addere>.

    At first I also thought that <add> and <addite> were twin bases, but I was wrong. Twin bases derive from the 2nd and 4th principal parts of a Latin verb.

    2nd: addere
    4th: additus

    The <it(e)> in <additus> is a stem suffix. The <it(e)> is removable. All the suffixes, both inflectional and stem, must be removed to get to the base. <add> and <addite> are not twin bases. The base is <add>.

    Additional evidence for the <it(e)> suffix is found in the words <audit> and <fruit>. The word <audit> comes from Latin <auditus> “a hearing, a listening,” past participle of <audire> “to hear.” The 2nd and 4th principal parts are <audire> and <auditus>. The base is <aud>, which gives us words such as <audio> and <audible>. The word <fruit> comes from Latin <fructus> “an enjoyment, delight, satisfaction; proceeds, produce, fruit, crops,” which gives us the twin bases <fru> and <fruct>.

    Aud + it(e) -> audit
    Aud + i + o -> audio
    Aud + ible -> audible
    Fru + it(e) -> fruit
    Fru + it(e) + ion -> fruition

    With evidence for <it(e)> as a Latin stem suffix, I then wondered if <add> is further analyzable if Latin <addere> is <ad + dere>. Is the base <add> or <d>?

    ?ad + D -> add
    ?ad + D + it(e) + ion -> addition

    I looked for more evidence by searching for -dere in Etymonline and found <extradition> and <abscond>. The word <extradition> comes from Latin <ex> + <traditionem> (nominative <traditio>), which gives us <ex + tradition>. <tradition> comes from <tradere> “deliver, hand over,” from <trans> “over” + <dare> “to give.”

    <traduce> is evidence for the <tra> prefix, which is a variation of <trans> “across, beyond, through, on the other side of, to go beyond, cross.” I already knew <duce> is a base because of words such as <produce> and <induce>.

    tra + Duce -> traduce
    tra + D + it(e) + ion -> tradition
    ex + tra + D + it(e) + ion -> extradition

    <abscond> comes from Latin <abscondere>, from assimilated form of <ab> “off, away from” + <condere> “put together, store,” from assimilated form of <com> “together” + <dere> “put.” Evidence for <abs> and <con> includes <abscise>, <concave>, <convex>, and <concede>.

    abs + con + D -> abscond
    abs + Cise -> abscice
    con + Cave -> concave
    con + Vex -> convex
    con + Cede -> concede

    Other words that have <d> bases include <incondite>, <recondite>, <condiment>, <edit>, and <edition>.

    in + con + D + it(e) -> incondite
    re + con + D + it(e) -> recondite
    con + D + i + ment -> condiment
    e + D + it(e) -> edit
    e + D + it(e) + ion -> edition

    I will also add that <add> is typically treated as a free base element but can arguably be analyzed into <ad + d>.

    In addition to uncovering the <d> base, I also learned six other interesting English spelling tidbits while studying <add>. First, I discovered another Latin suffix while studying the word <addendum>. The first part of the word is <ad + d>, and the final suffix is the singular Latin suffix <um>, which left the <end> portion. Looking in Etymonline, I learned that <addendum> is the gerundive of Latin <addere>. The Latin gerundive consists of (1) the infectum stem, (2) a vowel, (3) the suffix -nd-, and (4) an inflectional ending. Thus, <e> is a connecting vowel, and <nd> is a Latin gerundive suffix.

    ad + D + e + nd + um -> addendum

    Second, <add> and <address> are unrelated despite the identical first three letters. The word <add> again comes from Latin <addere>, from <ad> “to” + <dere>, combining form meaning “to put, place,” from dare “to give.” The word <address>, however, comes from Old French <adrecier>, from <ad> “to” + <dis> “apart” + <regere> “to direct, to guide, keep straight.”

    Third, I discovered two different <it(e)> morphemes. The first is the <it(e)> Latin stem suffix as found in <audit>, <edit>, and <fruit>.

    Aud + it(e) -> audit
    e + D + it(e) -> edit
    e + D + it(e) + ing -> editing
    Fru + it(e) -> fruit
    Fru + it(e) + ion -> fruition

    The second is the <It(e)> base from Latin <ire> “to go” as found in <exit>, <transit>, and <visit>.

    ex + It(e) -> exit
    ex + It(e) + ed -> exited
    trans + It(e) -> transit
    Vise + It(e) -> visit
    Vise + It(e) + ing -> visiting
    Vise + ion -> vision

    Fourth, the word <edit> also gave me the words <editor> and <editress>. When my oldest studied <act> a while back, I originally put <actress> as a relative because <actoress> became <actress>. But then I came across <editress>, which led me to think that <*ress> is a suffix, albeit a clip of <or + ess>. I also wondered if the agentive suffix was <(o)r> instead of <or>. The word <stewardess> is evidence for an <ess> suffix. Having both <*ress> and <ess> would be an inelegant analysis. Thus, the agentive suffixes are <(V)r> and <ess>.

    e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> editor
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ess -> editress
    Act + (o)r -> actor
    Act + (o)r + ess -> actress
    Wait + (e)r -> waiter
    Wait + (e)r + ess -> waitress
    Lie + (a)r -> liar

    Why does the vowel sometimes surface but other times not? The agentive suffix is not pronounced as vowel plus /ɹ/ but rather a syllabic-r, r-colored vowel, or schwar /ɚ/. English spelling requires a vowel letter in every syllable, which also explains the replaceable <e> on words like <bubble> and <jingle>. <editor> is pronounced /ˈɛdɪtɚ/, but <editress> as /ˈɛdɪtɹəs/.

    Fifth, I wondered if <copy> was further analyzable as <c + Ope + y> because <copy> comes from Latin copia, from assimilated form of <com> “with” + <ops> (genitive <opis>). Evidence for the <Ope> base includes <Ope + er + a -> opera> and <co + Ope + er + ate -> cooperate>. However, there is no evidence for a <c> suffix. The word <copy> is fused, meaning <copy> is just <copy>.

    Sixth, I was not sure about the <ren> in <render>, but then I found <rencounter>, which comes from Old French rencontrer. The prefix <ren> is another variation of <re> “once again” along with <red> as in <redact>. The <ren> suffix is French. The <red> suffix is Latin.

    Finally, a note on <ible>, <ibility>, <able>, and <ability>: All four suffixes are further analyzable. However, I learned from Gina Cooke at Linguistic Educators Exchange to treat <ible> and <ibility> as two different suffixal constructions and the same with <able> and <ability>. The <b> is the meat of the suffix, the <le> is a reduction of the <ile>, and the <a> or <i> is the Latin stem vowel.

    i + B + (i)l(e) -> ible
    i + B + (i)l(e) + i + ty -> ibility
    a + B + (i)l(e) -> able
    a + B + (i)l(e) + i + ty -> ability

    However, working synchronically with <ible/ibility> and <able/ability> is much more straightforward.

    Update September 3, 2019: Gina Cooke of Linguistic Educators Exchange pointed out to me on Twitter that at least two distinct <d> base elements exist. She told me to look at the PIE roots, and I indeed discovered that most of the <d> words come from the PIE root *do- “to give.” However, a handful come from the PIE root *dhe- “to put, place”: <abscond>, <condiment>, <incondite>, and <recondite>. I have made the necessary edits to my word sums and matrix. I have included the word sums for <d> “put, place” at the bottom of this post.

    <d>
    “give” from -dere, combining form meaning “to put, place,” from dare “to give” (from PIE root *do- “to give”)

    Words Sums

    ad + D -> add
    ad + D + s -> adds
    ad + D + ed -> added
    ad + D + ing -> adding
    ad + D + er -> adder
    ad + D + er + s -> adders

    re + ad + D -> readd
    re + ad + D + s -> readds
    re + ad + D + ed -> readded
    re + ad + D + ing -> readding
    mis + ad + D -> misadd
    mis + ad + D + s -> misadds
    mis + ad + D + ed -> misadded
    mis + ad + D + ing -> misadding
    Out + ad + D -> outadd
    Out + ad + D + s -> outadds
    Out + ad + D + ed -> outadded
    Out + ad + D + ing -> outadding
    Super + ad + D -> superadd
    Super + ad + D + s -> superadds
    Super + ad + D + ed -> superadded
    Super + ad + D + ing -> superadding
    un + ad + D -> unadd
    un + ad + D + s -> unadds
    un + ad + D + ed -> unadded
    un + ad + D + ing -> unadding

    ad + D + e + nd + um -> addendum
    ad + D + e + nd + um + s -> addendums
    ad + D + e + nd + a -> addenda

    ad + D + it(e) + ion -> addition
    ad + D + it(e) + ion + s -> additions
    ad + D + it(e) + ion + al -> additional
    ad + D + it(e) + ion + al + ly -> additionally
    Cycl + o + ad + D + it(e) + ion -> cycloaddition
    Cycl + o + ad + D + it(e) + ion + s -> cycloadditions
    Super + ad + D + it(e) + ion -> superaddition
    Super + ad + D + it(e) + ion + s -> superadditions

    ad + D + it(e) + ive -> additive
    ad + D + it(e) + ive + s -> additives
    ad + D + it(e) + ive + ly -> additively
    ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty -> additivity
    ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty + es -> additivities
    non + ad + D + it(e) + ive -> nonadditive
    non + ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty -> nonadditivity
    non + ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty + es -> nonadditivities

    ad + D + it(e) + (o)r + y -> additory
    ad + D + it(e) + a + ment -> additament
    ad + D + it(e) + a + ment + s -> additaments

    D + ate -> date
    D + ate + s -> dates
    D + ate + ed -> dated
    D + ate + ing -> dating
    D + ate + less -> dateless
    D + ate + able -> datable
    un + D + ate + able -> undatable
    Air + D + ate -> airdate
    Air + D + ate + s -> airdates
    Ant + e + D + ate -> antedate
    Ant + e + D + ate + s -> antedates
    Ant + e + D + ate + ed -> antedated
    Ant + e + D + ate + ing -> antedating
    Back + D + ate -> backdate
    Back + D + ate + s -> backdates
    Back + D + ate + ed -> backdated
    Back + D + ate + ing -> backdating
    Fore + D + ate -> foredate
    Fore + D + ate + s -> foredates
    Fore + D + ate + ed -> foredated
    Fore + D + ate + ing -> foredating
    mis + D + ate -> misdate
    mis + D + ate + s -> misdates
    mis + D + ate + ed -> misdated
    mis + D + ate + ing -> misdating
    Out + D + ate -> outdate
    Out + D + ate + s -> outdates
    Out + D + ate + ed -> outdated
    Out + D + ate + ing -> outdating
    Play + D + ate -> playdate
    Play + D + ate -> playdates
    post + D + ate -> postdate
    post + D + ate + s -> postdates
    post + D + ate + ed -> postdated
    post + D + ate + ing -> postdating
    pre + D + ate -> predate
    pre + D + ate + s -> predates
    pre + D + ate + ed -> predated
    pre + D + ate + ing -> predating
    re + D + ate -> redate
    re + D + ate + s -> redates
    re + D + ate + ed -> redated
    re + D + ate + ing -> redating
    Up + D + ate -> update
    Up + D + ate + s -> updates
    Up + D + ate + ed -> updated
    Up + D + ate + ing -> updating

    D + ate + ive -> dative
    D + ate + ive + ly -> datively

    D + ate + um -> datum
    D + ate + a -> data
    D + ate + ar + y -> datary
    D + ate + ar + y + es -> dataries
    D + ate + a + Base -> database
    D + ate + a + Base + es -> databases
    D + ate + a + Base + ed -> databased
    D + ate + a + Base + ing -> databasing
    D + ate + a + Bank -> databank
    D + ate + a + Bank + s -> databanks

    Man + D + ate -> mandate
    Man + D + ate + s -> mandates
    Man + D + ate + ed -> mandated
    Man + D + ate + ing -> mandating
    Man + D + ate + ar + y -> mandatary
    Man + D + ate + ar + y + es -> mandataries
    Man + D + ate + or + y -> mandatory
    Man + D + ate + or + y + ly -> mandatorily
    Man + D + amus -> mandamus
    Man + D + amus + es -> mandamuses

    com + Man + D -> command
    com + Man + D + s -> commands
    com + Man + D + ed -> commanded
    com + Man + D + ing -> commanding
    com + Man + D + ing + ly -> commandingly
    un + com + Man + D + ed -> uncommanded

    com + Man + D + o -> commando
    com + Man + D + o + s -> commandos
    com + Man + D + o + es -> commandoes
    com + Man + D + (e)r -> commander
    com + Man + D + (e)r + s -> commanders
    com + Man + D + (e)r + y -> commandery
    com + Man + D + (e)r + y + es -> commanderies
    com + Man + D + (e)r + ship -> commandership
    com + Man + D + (e)r + ship + s -> commanderships
    com + Man + D + eer -> commandeer
    com + Man + D + eer + s -> commandeers
    com + Man + D + eer + ed -> commandeered
    com + Man + D + eer + ing -> commandeering
    com + Man + D + ant -> commandant
    com + Man + D + ant + s -> commandants
    com + Man + D + ment -> commandment
    com + Man + D + ment + s -> commandments
    com + Man + D + able -> commandable

    counter + Man + D -> countermand
    counter + Man + D + s -> countermands
    counter + Man + D + ed -> countermanded
    counter + Man + D + ing -> countermanding

    de + Man + D -> demand
    de + Man + D + s -> demands
    de + Man + D + ed -> demanded
    de + Man + D + ing -> demanding
    de + Man + D + ing + ly -> demandingly
    de + Man + D + ing + nes -> demandingness
    un + de + Man + D + ing -> undemanding
    de + Man + D + (e)r -> demander
    de + Man + D + (e)r + s -> demanders
    de + Man + D + ant -> demandant
    de + Man + D + ant + s -> demandants
    re + de + Man + D -> redemand
    re + de + Man + D + s -> redemands
    re + de + Man + D + ed -> redemanded
    re + de + Man + D + ing -> redemanding
    counter + de + Man + D -> counterdemand
    counter + de + Man + D + s -> counterdemands
    non + de + Man + D -> nondemand
    non + de + Man + D + s -> nondemands
    non + de + Man + D + ing -> nondemanding
    over + de + Man + D + ing -> overdemanding

    re + Man + D -> remand
    re + Man + D + s -> remands
    re + Man + D + ed -> remanded
    re + Man + D + ing -> remanding

    com + Men + D -> commend
    com + Men + D + s -> commends
    com + Men + D + ed -> commended
    com + Men + D + ing -> commending
    com + Men + D + (e)r -> commender
    com + Men + D + (e)r + s -> commenders
    com + Men + D + am -> commendam
    com + Men + D + am + s -> commendams
    com + Men + D + able -> commendable
    com + Men + D + ably -> commendably
    com + Men + D + ate + or + y -> commendatory
    com + Men + D + ate + ion -> commendation
    com + Men + D + ate + ion + s -> commendations

    re + com + Men + D -> recommend
    re + com + Men + D + s -> recommends
    re + com + Men + D + ed -> recommended
    re + com + Men + D + ing -> recommending
    re + com + Men + D + (e)r -> recommender
    re + com + Men + D + (e)r + s -> recommenders
    re + com + Men + D + ate + or + y -> recommendatory
    re + com + Men + D + ate + ion -> recommendation
    re + com + Men + D + ate + ion + s -> recommendations
    re + com + Men + D + able -> recommendable
    dis + com + Men + D -> discommend
    dis + com + Men + D + s -> discommends
    dis + com + Men + D + ed -> discommended
    dis + com + Men + D + ing -> discommending

    e + D + it(e) -> edit
    e + D + it(e) + s -> edits
    e + D + it(e) + ed -> edited
    e + D + it(e) + ing -> editing
    e + D + it(e) + able -> editable
    un + e + D + it(e) + ed -> unedited
    e + D + it(e) + ion -> edition
    e + D + it(e) + ion + s -> editions
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> editor
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + s -> editors
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al -> editorial
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + s -> editorials
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ist -> editorialist
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ist + s -> editorialists
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize -> editorialize
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + s -> editorializes
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ed -> editorialized
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ing -> editorializing
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + (e)r -> editorializer
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + (e)r + s-> editorializers
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ate + ion -> editorialization
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ate + ion + s -> editorializations
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ly -> editorially
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ship -> editorship
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ship + s -> editorships
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ix -> editrix
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ix + es -> editrixes
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ices -> editrices
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ess -> editress
    e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ess + es -> editresses

    Copy + e + D + it(e) -> copyedit
    Copy + e + D + it(e) + s -> copyedits
    Copy + e + D + it(e) + ed -> copyedited
    Copy + e + D + it(e) + ing -> copyediting
    Copy + e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> copyeditor
    Copy + e + D + it(e) + (o)r + s -> copyeditors

    mis + e + D + it(e) -> misedit
    mis + e + D + it(e) + s -> misedits
    mis + e + D + it(e) + ed -> misedited
    mis + e + D + it(e) + ing -> misediting

    Over + e + D + it(e) -> overedit
    Over + e + D + it(e) + s -> overedits
    Over + e + D + it(e) + ed -> overedited
    Over + e + D + it(e) + ing -> overediting

    sub + e + D + it(e) -> subedit
    sub + e + D + it(e) + s -> subedits
    sub + e + D + it(e) + ed -> subedited
    sub + e + D + it(e) + ing -> subediting
    sub + e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> subeditor
    sub + e + D + it(e) + (o)r + s -> subeditors

    tra + D + it(e) + ion -> tradition
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + s -> traditions
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> traditional
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ly -> traditionally
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ism -> traditionalism
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ism + s -> traditionalisms
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ist -> traditionalist
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ist + s -> traditionalists
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + ar + y -> traditionary
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + less -> traditionless
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize -> traditionalize
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + s -> traditionalizes
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + ed -> traditionalized
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + ing -> traditionalizing
    tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + ate + ion -> traditionalization
    non + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> nontraditional
    un + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> untraditional
    un + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ly -> untraditionally
    anti + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> antitraditional

    ex + tra + D + it(e) -> extradite
    ex + tra + D + it(e) + s -> extradites
    ex + tra + D + it(e) + ed -> extradited
    ex + tra + D + it(e) + ing -> extraditing
    ex + tra + D + it(e) + ion -> extradition
    ex + tra + D + it(e) + ion + s -> extraditions
    ex + tra + D + it(e) + able -> extraditable

    De + o + D + a + nd -> deodand
    De + o + D + a + nd + s -> deodands

    per + D + it(e) + ion -> perdition
    per + D + it(e) + ion + s -> perditions
    pro + per + D + in -> properdin

    ren + D -> rend
    ren + D + s -> rends
    ren + D + ed -> rended
    ren + D + ing -> rending
    ren + D + ible -> rendible
    ren + D + it(e) + ion -> rendition
    ren + D it(e) + ion + s -> renditions
    ren + D + (e)r -> render
    ren + D + (e)r + s -> renders
    ren + D + (e)r + s -> rendered
    ren + D + (e)r + ing -> rendering
    ren + D + (e)r + ing + s -> renderings
    ren + D + (e)r + (e)r -> renderer
    ren + D + (e)r + (e)r + s -> renderers
    ren + D + (e)r + able -> renderable

    sur + ren + D -> surrend
    sur + ren + D + s -> surrends
    sur + ren + D + ed -> surrended
    sur + ren + D + ing -> surrending
    sur + ren + D + (e)r -> surrender
    sur + ren + D + (e)r + s -> surrenders
    sur + ren + D + (e)r + ee -> surrenderee
    sur + ren + D + (e)r + ee + s -> surrenderees

    Ven(e) + D -> vend
    Ven(e) + D + s -> vends
    Ven(e) + D + ed -> vended
    Ven(e) + D + ing -> vending
    Ven(e) + D + (e)r -> vender
    Ven(e) + D + (e)r + s -> venders
    Ven(e) + D + (o)r -> vendor
    Ven(e) + D + (o)r + s -> vendors
    Ven(e) + D + ee -> vendee
    Ven(e) + D + ee + s -> vendees
    Ven(e) + D + ue -> vendue
    Ven(e) + D + ue + s -> vendues
    Ven(e) + D + able -> vendable
    Ven(e) + D + able + s -> vendables
    Ven(e) + D + ible -> vendible
    Ven(e) + D + ible + s -> vendibles
    Ven(e) + D + ibility -> vendibility
    Ven(e) + D + ibility + es -> vendibilities
    Ven(e) + D + it(e) + ion -> vendition
    Ven(e) + D + it(e) + ion + s -> venditions

    Sacer + D + ote + al -> sacerdotal

    Morphemes

    d: give; put, place
    -s/-es: forming plural of noun
    -s: forming third person singular of verbs
    -ed: forming simple past and past participle of weak verb
    -ing: forming present participle of verb

    -a: plural of -um
    -a: Latin participle suffix
    -able: word-forming element of English adjectives and generally adding a notion of capable of, allowed, worthy of, or requiring
    -ably: forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives ending in -able
    abs-: off, away, or from [variation of ab-]
    ad-: to, toward
    air: invisible gases that surround the earth
    -al: relating to, of the kind of, of, relating to, resembling or containing the thing suffixed
    -am: Latin suffix
    -amus: Latin first person plural suffix
    ant: front, forehead; against, opposite of, contrary; counteracting, neutralizing
    ante-: front, forehead [Ant + e]
    anti-: against, opposite of, contrary; counteracting, neutralizing
    -ant: denoting attribution of an action or state
    -ar: forming an adjective denoting of, near, or pertaining to
    -ary: forming an adjective denoting of the kind of, belonging to, connected with, or pertaining to [ar + y]
    -ate: forming a verb
    back: to or toward the rear or the original starting place; in the past; behind in position
    bank: bench, table, moneylender’s table
    base: bottom, foundation
    com-: together
    con-: together [assimilated form of com-]
    copy: written account or record, duplicate [relative of Ope]
    counter-: against, in opposition; in return; corresponding [doublet of contra-]
    cycl: circle, wheel, any circular body; circular motion, cycle of events
    de: god
    de-: down, down from, from, off; concerning; down, off, away, from among, down from; down to the bottom, totally, completely
    dis-: denoting reversal, absence, removal, separation, or completeness of an action or state, expressing negation
    e-: variant spelling of ex-, out of, from
    -e-: connecting vowel
    -ee: forming a noun denoting a person described as or concerned with or denoting the person affected directly or indirectly by the action of the formative verb
    -eer: denoting someone associated with, concerned with, or engaged in a specified activity
    -er: denoting a person or thing that performs a specified action or activity
    -ess: forming a noun denoting female gender
    ex-: out of, from
    fore: in front, in advance, situated in front of, preceding, going before
    -i-: connecting vowel
    -ible: word-forming element of English adjectives and generally adding a notion of capable of, allowed, worthy of, or requiring
    -ibility: word-forming element expressing ability, fitness, or capacity
    -ices: plural of -ix
    in-: not, without, opposite of
    -in: word-forming element in chemistry
    -ion: denoting state, condition, or action
    -ism: forming a noun denoting a system, principle, or ideological movement; an action or its result; a state or quality
    -ist: forming a personal noun denoting an adherent of a system of beliefs, principles, etc. expressed by a noun ending in -ism
    -it(e): Latin stem suffix
    -ive: tending to, having the nature of
    -ix: Latin singular feminine suffix
    -ize: word-forming element used to make verbs
    -less: not having, free from, without
    -ly: denoting manner or degree
    man: hand
    men: hand [doublet of Man]
    -ment: forming a noun that expresses the means or result of an action
    mis-: bad, wrong
    -nd: Latin gerundive suffix
    non-: expressing negation or absence, not
    -o: Romantic noun suffix (Italian, Portuguese)
    -o-: connecting vowel
    -(o)r: denoting a person or thing that performs a specified action or activity
    -ote: Greek suffix
    out: to the point of surpassing or exceeding
    over: on top of, higher than, above, further up; beyond, past, exceeding
    per-: through, to
    play: move rapidly, occupy or busy oneself, exercise; frolic; make sport of, mock; perform music
    post-: after, behind
    pre-: prior to, before, earlier, in front of
    pro-: for, forward, outward; before, in front of, sooner
    re-: once again
    ren-: once again [variation of re-]
    sacer: holy
    -ship: appended to a noun to form a new noun denoting a property or state of being, time spent in a role, or a specialized union
    sub-: under, beneath; lower, less, under; almost, nearly
    super: above, over, beyond
    sur-: over, above, beyond, in addition
    tra-: across, beyond, through, on the other side of, to go beyond, cross [variation of trans-]
    -ue: place, location
    -ty: forming noun denoting quality or condition
    -um: denotes singular grammatical number
    un-: denoting the absence of a quality or state, not, denoting reversal, a lack of
    up: from a lower to higher position, at a higher position
    ven(e): for sale, sell
    -(V)r: denoting a person or thing that performs a specified action or activity [see -er, -or, -ar]
    -y: full of, having the quality of, inclined to; quality, state, action, or entity

    Relatives <d> “give”

    add-on
    pre-edit
    rendezvous
    abscond
    condiment
    incondite
    recondite

    Words Sums <d> “set, put”>

    abs + con + D -> abscond
    abs + con + D + s -> absconds
    abs + con + D + ed -> absconded
    abs + con + D + ing -> absconding
    abs + con + D + er -> absconder
    abs + con + D + er + s -> absconders

    con + D + i + ment -> condiment
    con + D + i + ment + s -> condiments
    con + D + i + ment + al -> condimental

    in + con + D + it(e) -> incondite

    re + con + D + it(e) -> recondite
    re + con + D + it(e) + ly -> reconditely

    See Word Matrix: D (“set, put”) for the full post including the matrix.

     

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