in , ,

Word Matrix: D (“give”)

Advertisement

Word Matrix: D

After returning from a two-week family vacation last weekend, I found my sleep schedule completely messed up. Instead of tossing and turning in bed, I decided to peruse linguistics Twitter. I came upon a tweet from fellow word inquirer Sally Cole asking if <add> and <*addit> are twin bases. I quickly fell down a word study rabbit hole.

Advertisement

First, I could see that the form would have to be <addite> to keep the <t> from doubling per English spelling rules. Without the replaceable <e>, <*addit + ion> would result in <*addittion>. Then I did some more digging on Etymonline.

The noun <addition> comes from Old French <adition>, from Latin <additionem> (nominative <additio>), which is a noun of action from the past participle stem of <addere>, which comes from <ad> “to” + <-dere>, combining form meaning “to put, place,” from <dare> “to give.” The verb <add> also comes from Latin <addere>.

At first I also thought that <add> and <addite> were twin bases, but I was wrong. Twin bases derive from the 2nd and 4th principal parts of a Latin verb.

2nd: addere
4th: additus

The <it(e)> in <additus> is a stem suffix. The <it(e)> is removable. All the suffixes, both inflectional and stem, must be removed to get to the base. <add> and <addite> are not twin bases. The base is <add>.

Additional evidence for the <it(e)> suffix is found in the words <audit> and <fruit>. The word <audit> comes from Latin <auditus> “a hearing, a listening,” past participle of <audire> “to hear.” The 2nd and 4th principal parts are <audire> and <auditus>. The base is <aud>, which gives us words such as <audio> and <audible>. The word <fruit> comes from Latin <fructus> “an enjoyment, delight, satisfaction; proceeds, produce, fruit, crops,” which gives us the twin bases <fru> and <fruct>.

Aud + it(e) -> audit
Aud + i + o -> audio
Aud + ible -> audible
Fru + it(e) -> fruit
Fru + it(e) + ion -> fruition

With evidence for <it(e)> as a Latin stem suffix, I then wondered if <add> is further analyzable if Latin <addere> is <ad + dere>. Is the base <add> or <d>?

?ad + D -> add
?ad + D + it(e) + ions -> addition

I looked for more evidence by searching for -dere in Etymonline and found <extradition> and <abscond>. The word <extradition> comes from Latin <ex> + <traditionem> (nominative <traditio>), which gives us <ex + tradition>. <tradition> comes from <tradere> “deliver, hand over,” from <trans> “over” + <dare> “to give.”

<traduce> is evidence for the <tra> prefix, which is a variation of <trans> “across, beyond, through, on the other side of, to go beyond, cross.” I already knew <duce> is a base because of words such as <produce> and <induce>.

tra + Duce -> traduce
tra + D + it(e) + ion -> tradition
ex + tra + D + it(e) + ion -> extradition

<abscond> comes from Latin <abscondere>, from assimilated form of <ab> “off, away from” + <condere> “put together, store,” from assimilated form of <com> “together” + <dere> “put.” Evidence for <abs> and <con> includes <abscise>, <concave>, <convex>, and <concede>.

abs + con + D -> abscond
abs + Cise -> abscise
con + Cave -> concave
con + Vex -> convex
con + Cede -> concede

Other words that have <d> bases include <incondite>, <recondite>, <condiment>, <edit>, and <edition>.

in + con + D + it(e) -> incondite
re + con + D + it(e) -> recondite
con + D + i + ment -> condiment
e + D + it(e) -> edit
e + D + it(e) + ion -> edition

I will also add that <add> is typically treated as a free base element but can arguably be analyzed into <ad + d>.

In addition to uncovering the <d> base, I also learned six other interesting English spelling tidbits while studying <add>. First, I discovered another Latin suffix while studying the word <addendum>. The first part of the word is <ad + d>, and the final suffix is the singular Latin suffix <um>, which left the <end> portion. Looking in Etymonline, I learned that <addendum> is the gerundive of Latin <addere>. The Latin gerundive consists of (1) the infectum stem, (2) a vowel, (3) the suffix -nd-, and (4) an inflectional ending. Thus, <e> is a connecting vowel, and <nd> is a Latin gerundive suffix.

ad + D + e + nd + um -> addendum

Second, <add> and <address> are unrelated despite the identical first three letters. The word <add> again comes from Latin <addere>, from <ad> “to” + <dere>, combining form meaning “to put, place,” from dare “to give.” The word <address>, however, comes from Old French <adrecier>, from <ad> “to” + <dis> “apart” + <regere> “to direct, to guide, keep straight.”

Third, I discovered two different <it(e)> morphemes. The first is the <it(e)> Latin stem suffix as found in <audit>, <edit>, and <fruit>.

Aud + it(e) -> audit
e + D + it(e) -> edit
e + D + it(e) + ing -> editing
Fru + it(e) -> fruit
Fru + it(e) + ion -> fruition

The second is the <It(e)> base from Latin <ire> “to go” as found in <exit>, <transit>, and <visit>.

ex + It(e) -> exit
ex + It(e) + ed -> exited
trans + It(e) -> transit
Vise + It(e) -> visit
Vise + It(e) + ing -> visiting
Vise + ion -> vision

Fourth, the word <edit> also gave me the words <editor> and <editress>. When my oldest studied <act> a while back, I originally put <actress> as a relative because <actoress> became <actress>. But then I came across <editress>, which led me to think that <*ress> is a suffix, albeit a clip of <or + ess>. I also wondered if the agentive suffix was <(o)r> instead of <or>. The word <stewardess> is evidence for an <ess> suffix. Having both <*ress> and <ess> would be an inelegant analysis. Thus, the agentive suffixes are <(V)r> and <ess>.

e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> editor
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ess -> editress
Act + (o)r -> actor
Act + (o)r + ess -> actress
Wait + (e)r -> waiter
Wait + (e)r + ess -> waitress
Lie + (a)r -> liar

Why does the vowel sometimes surface but other times not? The agentive suffix is not pronounced as vowel plus /ɹ/ but rather a syllabic-r, r-colored vowel, or schwar /ɚ/. English spelling requires a vowel letter in every syllable, which also explains the replaceable <e> on words like <bubble> and <jingle>. <editor> is pronounced /ˈɛdɪtɚ/, but <editress> as /ˈɛdɪtɹəs/.

Fifth, I wondered if <copy> was further analyzable as <c + Ope + y> because <copy> comes from Latin copia, from assimilated form of <com> “with” + <ops> (genitive <opis>). Evidence for the <Ope> base includes <Ope + er + a -> opera> and <co + Ope + er + ate -> cooperate>. However, there is no evidence for a <c> suffix. The word <copy> is fused, meaning <copy> is just <copy>.

Sixth, I was not sure about the <ren> in <render>, but then I found <rencounter>, which comes from Old French rencontrer. The prefix <ren> is another variation of <re> “once again” along with <red> as in <redact>. The <ren> suffix is French. The <red> suffix is Latin.

Finally, a note on <ible>, <ibility>, <able>, and <ability>: All four suffixes are further analyzable. However, I learned from Gina Cooke at Linguistic Educators Exchange to treat <ible> and <ibility> as two different suffixal constructions and the same with <able> and <ability>. The <b> is the meat of the suffix, the <le> is a reduction of the <ile>, and the <a> or <i> is the Latin stem vowel.

i + B + (i)l(e) -> ible
i + B + (i)l(e) + i + ty -> ibility
a + B + (i)l(e) -> able
a + B + (i)l(e) + i + ty -> ability

However, working synchronically with <ible/ibility> and <able/ability> is much more straightforward.

Update September 3, 2019: Gina Cooke of Linguistic Educators Exchange pointed out to me on Twitter that at least two distinct <d> base elements exist. She told me to look at the PIE roots, and I indeed discovered that most of the <d> words come from the PIE root *do- “to give.” However, a handful come from the PIE root *dhe- “to put, place”: <abscond>, <condiment>, <incondite>, and <recondite>. I have made the necessary edits to my word sums and matrix. I have included the word sums for <d> “put, place” at the bottom of this post.

<d>
“give” from -dere, combining form meaning “to put, place,” from dare “to give” (from PIE root *do- “to give”)

Words Sums

ad + D -> add
ad + D + s -> adds
ad + D + ed -> added
ad + D + ing -> adding
ad + D + er -> adder
ad + D + er + s -> adders

re + ad + D -> readd
re + ad + D + s -> readds
re + ad + D + ed -> readded
re + ad + D + ing -> readding
mis + ad + D -> misadd
mis + ad + D + s -> misadds
mis + ad + D + ed -> misadded
mis + ad + D + ing -> misadding
Out + ad + D -> outadd
Out + ad + D + s -> outadds
Out + ad + D + ed -> outadded
Out + ad + D + ing -> outadding
Super + ad + D -> superadd
Super + ad + D + s -> superadds
Super + ad + D + ed -> superadded
Super + ad + D + ing -> superadding
un + ad + D -> unadd
un + ad + D + s -> unadds
un + ad + D + ed -> unadded
un + ad + D + ing -> unadding

ad + D + e + nd + um -> addendum
ad + D + e + nd + um + s -> addendums
ad + D + e + nd + a -> addenda

ad + D + it(e) + ion -> addition
ad + D + it(e) + ion + s -> additions
ad + D + it(e) + ion + al -> additional
ad + D + it(e) + ion + al + ly -> additionally
Cycl + o + ad + D + it(e) + ion -> cycloaddition
Cycl + o + ad + D + it(e) + ion + s -> cycloadditions
Super + ad + D + it(e) + ion -> superaddition
Super + ad + D + it(e) + ion + s -> superadditions

ad + D + it(e) + ive -> additive
ad + D + it(e) + ive + s -> additives
ad + D + it(e) + ive + ly -> additively
ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty -> additivity
ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty + es -> additivities
non + ad + D + it(e) + ive -> nonadditive
non + ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty -> nonadditivity
non + ad + D + it(e) + ive + ty + es -> nonadditivities

ad + D + it(e) + (o)r + y -> additory
ad + D + it(e) + a + ment -> additament
ad + D + it(e) + a + ment + s -> additaments

D + ate -> date
D + ate + s -> dates
D + ate + ed -> dated
D + ate + ing -> dating
D + ate + less -> dateless
D + ate + able -> datable
un + D + ate + able -> undatable
Air + D + ate -> airdate
Air + D + ate + s -> airdates
Ant + e + D + ate -> antedate
Ant + e + D + ate + s -> antedates
Ant + e + D + ate + ed -> antedated
Ant + e + D + ate + ing -> antedating
Back + D + ate -> backdate
Back + D + ate + s -> backdates
Back + D + ate + ed -> backdated
Back + D + ate + ing -> backdating
Fore + D + ate -> foredate
Fore + D + ate + s -> foredates
Fore + D + ate + ed -> foredated
Fore + D + ate + ing -> foredating
mis + D + ate -> misdate
mis + D + ate + s -> misdates
mis + D + ate + ed -> misdated
mis + D + ate + ing -> misdating
Out + D + ate -> outdate
Out + D + ate + s -> outdates
Out + D + ate + ed -> outdated
Out + D + ate + ing -> outdating
Play + D + ate -> playdate
Play + D + ate -> playdates
post + D + ate -> postdate
post + D + ate + s -> postdates
post + D + ate + ed -> postdated
post + D + ate + ing -> postdating
pre + D + ate -> predate
pre + D + ate + s -> predates
pre + D + ate + ed -> predated
pre + D + ate + ing -> predating
re + D + ate -> redate
re + D + ate + s -> redates
re + D + ate + ed -> redated
re + D + ate + ing -> redating
Up + D + ate -> update
Up + D + ate + s -> updates
Up + D + ate + ed -> updated
Up + D + ate + ing -> updating

D + ate + ive -> dative
D + ate + ive + ly -> datively

D + ate + um -> datum
D + ate + a -> data
D + ate + ar + y -> datary
D + ate + ar + y + es -> dataries
D + ate + a + Base -> database
D + ate + a + Base + es -> databases
D + ate + a + Base + ed -> databased
D + ate + a + Base + ing -> databasing
D + ate + a + Bank -> databank
D + ate + a + Bank + s -> databanks

Man + D + ate -> mandate
Man + D + ate + s -> mandates
Man + D + ate + ed -> mandated
Man + D + ate + ing -> mandating
Man + D + ate + ar + y -> mandatary
Man + D + ate + ar + y + es -> mandataries
Man + D + ate + or + y -> mandatory
Man + D + ate + or + y + ly -> mandatorily
Man + D + amus -> mandamus
Man + D + amus + es -> mandamuses

com + Man + D -> command
com + Man + D + s -> commands
com + Man + D + ed -> commanded
com + Man + D + ing -> commanding
com + Man + D + ing + ly -> commandingly
un + com + Man + D + ed -> uncommanded

com + Man + D + o -> commando
com + Man + D + o + s -> commandos
com + Man + D + o + es -> commandoes
com + Man + D + (e)r -> commander
com + Man + D + (e)r + s -> commanders
com + Man + D + (e)r + y -> commandery
com + Man + D + (e)r + y + es -> commanderies
com + Man + D + (e)r + ship -> commandership
com + Man + D + (e)r + ship + s -> commanderships
com + Man + D + eer -> commandeer
com + Man + D + eer + s -> commandeers
com + Man + D + eer + ed -> commandeered
com + Man + D + eer + ing -> commandeering
com + Man + D + ant -> commandant
com + Man + D + ant + s -> commandants
com + Man + D + ment -> commandment
com + Man + D + ment + s -> commandments
com + Man + D + able -> commandable

counter + Man + D -> countermand
counter + Man + D + s -> countermands
counter + Man + D + ed -> countermanded
counter + Man + D + ing -> countermanding

de + Man + D -> demand
de + Man + D + s -> demands
de + Man + D + ed -> demanded
de + Man + D + ing -> demanding
de + Man + D + ing + ly -> demandingly
de + Man + D + ing + nes -> demandingness
un + de + Man + D + ing -> undemanding
de + Man + D + (e)r -> demander
de + Man + D + (e)r + s -> demanders
de + Man + D + ant -> demandant
de + Man + D + ant + s -> demandants
re + de + Man + D -> redemand
re + de + Man + D + s -> redemands
re + de + Man + D + ed -> redemanded
re + de + Man + D + ing -> redemanding
counter + de + Man + D -> counterdemand
counter + de + Man + D + s -> counterdemands
non + de + Man + D -> nondemand
non + de + Man + D + s -> nondemands
non + de + Man + D + ing -> nondemanding
over + de + Man + D + ing -> overdemanding

re + Man + D -> remand
re + Man + D + s -> remands
re + Man + D + ed -> remanded
re + Man + D + ing -> remanding

com + Men + D -> commend
com + Men + D + s -> commends
com + Men + D + ed -> commended
com + Men + D + ing -> commending
com + Men + D + (e)r -> commender
com + Men + D + (e)r + s -> commenders
com + Men + D + am -> commendam
com + Men + D + am + s -> commendams
com + Men + D + able -> commendable
com + Men + D + ably -> commendably
com + Men + D + ate + or + y -> commendatory
com + Men + D + ate + ion -> commendation
com + Men + D + ate + ion + s -> commendations

re + com + Men + D -> recommend
re + com + Men + D + s -> recommends
re + com + Men + D + ed -> recommended
re + com + Men + D + ing -> recommending
re + com + Men + D + (e)r -> recommender
re + com + Men + D + (e)r + s -> recommenders
re + com + Men + D + ate + or + y -> recommendatory
re + com + Men + D + ate + ion -> recommendation
re + com + Men + D + ate + ion + s -> recommendations
re + com + Men + D + able -> recommendable
dis + com + Men + D -> discommend
dis + com + Men + D + s -> discommends
dis + com + Men + D + ed -> discommended
dis + com + Men + D + ing -> discommending

e + D + it(e) -> edit
e + D + it(e) + s -> edits
e + D + it(e) + ed -> edited
e + D + it(e) + ing -> editing
e + D + it(e) + able -> editable
un + e + D + it(e) + ed -> unedited
e + D + it(e) + ion -> edition
e + D + it(e) + ion + s -> editions
e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> editor
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + s -> editors
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al -> editorial
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + s -> editorials
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ist -> editorialist
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ist + s -> editorialists
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize -> editorialize
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + s -> editorializes
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ed -> editorialized
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ing -> editorializing
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + (e)r -> editorializer
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + (e)r + s-> editorializers
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ate + ion -> editorialization
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ize + ate + ion + s -> editorializations
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + i + al + ly -> editorially
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ship -> editorship
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ship + s -> editorships
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ix -> editrix
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ix + es -> editrixes
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ices -> editrices
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ess -> editress
e + D + it(e) + (o)r + ess + es -> editresses

Copy + e + D + it(e) -> copyedit
Copy + e + D + it(e) + s -> copyedits
Copy + e + D + it(e) + ed -> copyedited
Copy + e + D + it(e) + ing -> copyediting
Copy + e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> copyeditor
Copy + e + D + it(e) + (o)r + s -> copyeditors

mis + e + D + it(e) -> misedit
mis + e + D + it(e) + s -> misedits
mis + e + D + it(e) + ed -> misedited
mis + e + D + it(e) + ing -> misediting

Over + e + D + it(e) -> overedit
Over + e + D + it(e) + s -> overedits
Over + e + D + it(e) + ed -> overedited
Over + e + D + it(e) + ing -> overediting

sub + e + D + it(e) -> subedit
sub + e + D + it(e) + s -> subedits
sub + e + D + it(e) + ed -> subedited
sub + e + D + it(e) + ing -> subediting
sub + e + D + it(e) + (o)r -> subeditor
sub + e + D + it(e) + (o)r + s -> subeditors

tra + D + it(e) + ion -> tradition
tra + D + it(e) + ion + s -> traditions
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> traditional
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ly -> traditionally
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ism -> traditionalism
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ism + s -> traditionalisms
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ist -> traditionalist
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ist + s -> traditionalists
tra + D + it(e) + ion + ar + y -> traditionary
tra + D + it(e) + ion + less -> traditionless
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize -> traditionalize
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + s -> traditionalizes
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + ed -> traditionalized
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + ing -> traditionalizing
tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + lize + ate + ion -> traditionalization
non + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> nontraditional
un + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> untraditional
un + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al + ly -> untraditionally
anti + tra + D + it(e) + ion + al -> antitraditional

ex + tra + D + it(e) -> extradite
ex + tra + D + it(e) + s -> extradites
ex + tra + D + it(e) + ed -> extradited
ex + tra + D + it(e) + ing -> extraditing
ex + tra + D + it(e) + ion -> extradition
ex + tra + D + it(e) + ion + s -> extraditions
ex + tra + D + it(e) + able -> extraditable

De + o + D + a + nd -> deodand
De + o + D + a + nd + s -> deodands

per + D + it(e) + ion -> perdition
per + D + it(e) + ion + s -> perditions
pro + per + D + in -> properdin

ren + D -> rend
ren + D + s -> rends
ren + D + ed -> rended
ren + D + ing -> rending
ren + D + ible -> rendible
ren + D + it(e) + ion -> rendition
ren + D it(e) + ion + s -> renditions
ren + D + (e)r -> render
ren + D + (e)r + s -> renders
ren + D + (e)r + s -> rendered
ren + D + (e)r + ing -> rendering
ren + D + (e)r + ing + s -> renderings
ren + D + (e)r + (e)r -> renderer
ren + D + (e)r + (e)r + s -> renderers
ren + D + (e)r + able -> renderable

sur + ren + D -> surrend
sur + ren + D + s -> surrends
sur + ren + D + ed -> surrended
sur + ren + D + ing -> surrending
sur + ren + D + (e)r -> surrender
sur + ren + D + (e)r + s -> surrenders
sur + ren + D + (e)r + ee -> surrenderee
sur + ren + D + (e)r + ee + s -> surrenderees

Ven(e) + D -> vend
Ven(e) + D + s -> vends
Ven(e) + D + ed -> vended
Ven(e) + D + ing -> vending
Ven(e) + D + (e)r -> vender
Ven(e) + D + (e)r + s -> venders
Ven(e) + D + (o)r -> vendor
Ven(e) + D + (o)r + s -> vendors
Ven(e) + D + ee -> vendee
Ven(e) + D + ee + s -> vendees
Ven(e) + D + ue -> vendue
Ven(e) + D + ue + s -> vendues
Ven(e) + D + able -> vendable
Ven(e) + D + able + s -> vendables
Ven(e) + D + ible -> vendible
Ven(e) + D + ible + s -> vendibles
Ven(e) + D + ibility -> vendibility
Ven(e) + D + ibility + es -> vendibilities
Ven(e) + D + it(e) + ion -> vendition
Ven(e) + D + it(e) + ion + s -> venditions

Sacer + D + ote + al -> sacerdotal

Morphemes

d: give; put, place
-s/-es: forming plural of noun
-s: forming third person singular of verbs
-ed: forming simple past and past participle of weak verb
-ing: forming present participle of verb

-a: plural of -um
-a: Latin participle suffix
-able: word-forming element of English adjectives and generally adding a notion of capable of, allowed, worthy of, or requiring
-ably: forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives ending in -able
abs-: off, away, or from [variation of ab-]
ad-: to, toward
air: invisible gases that surround the earth
-al: relating to, of the kind of, of, relating to, resembling or containing the thing suffixed
-am: Latin suffix
-amus: Latin first person plural suffix
ant: front, forehead; against, opposite of, contrary; counteracting, neutralizing
ante-: front, forehead [Ant + e]
anti-: against, opposite of, contrary; counteracting, neutralizing
-ant: denoting attribution of an action or state
-ar: forming an adjective denoting of, near, or pertaining to
-ary: forming an adjective denoting of the kind of, belonging to, connected with, or pertaining to [ar + y]
-ate: forming a verb
back: to or toward the rear or the original starting place; in the past; behind in position
bank: bench, table, moneylender’s table
base: bottom, foundation
com-: together
con-: together [assimilated form of com-]
copy: written account or record, duplicate [relative of Ope]
counter-: against, in opposition; in return; corresponding [doublet of contra-]
cycl: circle, wheel, any circular body; circular motion, cycle of events
de: god
de-: down, down from, from, off; concerning; down, off, away, from among, down from; down to the bottom, totally, completely
dis-: denoting reversal, absence, removal, separation, or completeness of an action or state, expressing negation
e-: variant spelling of ex-, out of, from
-e-: connecting vowel
-ee: forming a noun denoting a person described as or concerned with or denoting the person affected directly or indirectly by the action of the formative verb
-eer: denoting someone associated with, concerned with, or engaged in a specified activity
-er: denoting a person or thing that performs a specified action or activity
-ess: forming a noun denoting female gender
ex-: out of, from
fore: in front, in advance, situated in front of, preceding, going before
-i-: connecting vowel
-ible: word-forming element of English adjectives and generally adding a notion of capable of, allowed, worthy of, or requiring
-ibility: word-forming element expressing ability, fitness, or capacity
-ices: plural of -ix
in-: not, without, opposite of
-in: word-forming element in chemistry
-ion: denoting state, condition, or action
-ism: forming a noun denoting a system, principle, or ideological movement; an action or its result; a state or quality
-ist: forming a personal noun denoting an adherent of a system of beliefs, principles, etc. expressed by a noun ending in -ism
-it(e): Latin stem suffix
-ive: tending to, having the nature of
-ix: Latin singular feminine suffix
-ize: word-forming element used to make verbs
-less: not having, free from, without
-ly: denoting manner or degree
man: hand
men: hand [doublet of Man]
-ment: forming a noun that expresses the means or result of an action
mis-: bad, wrong
-nd: Latin gerundive suffix
non-: expressing negation or absence, not
-o: Romantic noun suffix (Italian, Portuguese)
-o-: connecting vowel
-(o)r: denoting a person or thing that performs a specified action or activity
-ote: Greek suffix
out: to the point of surpassing or exceeding
over: on top of, higher than, above, further up; beyond, past, exceeding
per-: through, to
play: move rapidly, occupy or busy oneself, exercise; frolic; make sport of, mock; perform music
post-: after, behind
pre-: prior to, before, earlier, in front of
pro-: for, forward, outward; before, in front of, sooner
re-: once again
ren-: once again [variation of re-]
sacer: holy
-ship: appended to a noun to form a new noun denoting a property or state of being, time spent in a role, or a specialized union
sub-: under, beneath; lower, less, under; almost, nearly
super: above, over, beyond
sur-: over, above, beyond, in addition
tra-: across, beyond, through, on the other side of, to go beyond, cross [variation of trans-]
-ue: place, location
-ty: forming noun denoting quality or condition
-um: denotes singular grammatical number
un-: denoting the absence of a quality or state, not, denoting reversal, a lack of
up: from a lower to higher position, at a higher position
ven(e): for sale, sell
-(V)r: denoting a person or thing that performs a specified action or activity [see -er, -or, -ar]
-y: full of, having the quality of, inclined to; quality, state, action, or entity

Relatives <d> “give”

add-on
pre-edit
rendezvous
abscond
condiment
incondite
recondite

Words Sums <d> “set, put”>

abs + con + D -> abscond
abs + con + D + s -> absconds
abs + con + D + ed -> absconded
abs + con + D + ing -> absconding
abs + con + D + er -> absconder
abs + con + D + er + s -> absconders

con + D + i + ment -> condiment
con + D + i + ment + s -> condiments
con + D + i + ment + al -> condimental

in + con + D + it(e) -> incondite

re + con + D + it(e) -> recondite
re + con + D + it(e) + ly -> reconditely

See Word Matrix: D (“set, put”) for the full post including the matrix.

 

Advertisement

Written by Heather Johnson

Heather is a writer, librarian, linguist, wife, and mother who loves her husband, children, dogs, and cat. She has a bachelor's degree in English with a minor in creative writing and master's degrees in library and information science and English studies with a concentration in linguistics.

Family Fun in California: USS Midway Museum

Family Fun in California: USS Midway Museum

Family Fun in California: Joshua Tree National Park

Family Fun in California: Joshua Tree National Park